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Table 2 Crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for global perceived effect (GPE), dichotomized in improved (1-2) and not improved (3–7) and goal classes and demographical, anthropometric, psychosocial and disease-specific variables. Odds ratio > 1 indicates higher odds for reporting improved. N = 1384

From: Associations between treatment goals, patient characteristics, and outcome measures for patients with musculoskeletal disorders in physiotherapy practice

Variable Crude estimates OR (95% CI) p Multiple regression model OR (95% CI) p
Goal classes   <.001   .008
Symptom only Reference   Reference  
Function/structure included 1.44 (1.04 to 2.00) .030 1.22 (.81 to 1.84) .337
Activity/participation included 1.98 (1.44 to 2.72) <.001 1.80 (1.23 to 2.66) .004
Non-classifiable .95 (.60 to 1.50) .768 1.15 (.66 to 2.00) .791
Age (years) .99 (.99 to 1.00) .037 .99 (.98 to 1.00) .054
Gender (male is reference) 1.01 (.79 to 1.29) .914 .82 (.62 to 1.09) .112
BMI 1.00 (.99 to 1.02) .592   
Treatment belief a   <.001   <.001
Totally agree Reference   Reference  
Agree .44 (.34 to.57) <.001 .49 (.37 to .64) <.001
Neither agree nor disagree .29 (.18 to.47) <.001 .35 (.21 to .58) <.001
Emotional distress (HSCL10, score 1–4), .44 (.35 to.56) <.001 .50 (.38 to .66) <.001
Severity (score 0–10) .95 (.88 to 1.01) .108   
Duration   <.001   
  < 3 months Reference    
3–12 months 1.0 (.68 to 1.46) .986   
  > 12 months .62 (.44 to.86) .004   
Body region/diagnosis   <.001   .056
Spinal Reference   Reference  
Upper extremities 1.46 (1.05 to 2.03) .026 1.17 (.79 to 1.73) .435
Lower extremities 1.34 (1.02 to 1.76) .034 1.03 (.74 to 1.43) .856
Unspecific/multisite conditions .54 (.36 to.80) .003 .59 (.37 to .94) .027
  1. OR Odds radio, CI Confidence intervals, HSCL10 Hopkins Symptom Check List 10 item version. Severity = average of pain intensity last week (0–10) and inverted rating of PSFS (0–10), higher is worse
  2. a: One patient answered disagree and one patient answered totally disagree. Data not presented in table due to low number