Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline patient characteristics and outcomes for the total study sample and for the four groups based on goal classes. Mean (SD) or N (%)

From: Associations between treatment goals, patient characteristics, and outcome measures for patients with musculoskeletal disorders in physiotherapy practice

  Total N = 2591 (100%) Symptom only N = 440 (17.0%) Function/structure included N = 838 (32.3%) Activity/participation included N = 1122 (43.3%) Non-classifiable N = 191 (7.4%) P
Characteristics
 Age years, mean (SD) 48.4 (18.1) 42.4 (16.9) bcd* 52.0 (16.8) ac* 47.5 (18.8) a* 50.9 (17.9) a* <.001
 Gender female, N (%) 1763 (69.5) 330 (76.7) 563 (68.1) 723 (66.5) 147 (77.4) <.001
 BMI, mean (SD) 26.6 (10.4) 25.5 (4.9) 27.3 (13.1) 26.6 (10.2) 25.8 (4.5) .092
 Severity (0–10) N (%) 5.3 (1.7) 5.0 (1.7) c* 5.3 (1.6) 5.5 (1.7) a* 5.4 (1.6) <.001
 Body region/diagnosis N (%)       <.001
  Spinal 750 (28.9) 211 (47.7) 220 (25.8) 259 (23.5) 60 (30.0)  
  Upper extremities 504 (19.4) 68 (15.4) 228 (26.7) 187 (17.0) 21 (10.5)  
  Lower extremities 1118 (43.0) 107 (24.2) 344 (40.3) 595 (53.2) 72 (36.0)  
  Unspecific/ multisite conditions 225 (8.7) 56 (12.7) 61 (7.2) 61 (5.5) 47 (23.5)  
 Emotional distress (HSCL10, score 1–4), mean (SD) 1.62 (.51) 1.66 (.51) d* 1.60 (.49) d* 1.60 (.50) d* 1.86 (.61) abc* .001
 Treatment beliefs, N (%) 1776      .021
  Totally agree 994 (56.0) 128 (46.2) 332 (59.0) 466 (57.5) 68 (54.4)  
  Agree 658 (37.0) 120 (43.3) 194 (34.5) 299 (36.9) 45 (36.0)  
  Neither agree nor disagree 122 (6.9) 29 (10.5) 36 (6.4) 45 (5.5) 12 (9.6)  
  Disagree 2 (0.1) 0 (0) 1 (0.2) 1 (0.1) 0 (0)  
 Duration, N (%) 1817      .575
   < 3 m 386 (21.2) 77 (24.1) 119 (19.6) 162 (21.8) 28 (19.2)  
  3-12 m 518 (28.5) 85 (26.6) 170 (28.0) 222 (29.9) 41 (28.1)  
   > 12 m 913 (50.2) 158 (49.4) 319 (52.5) 359 (48.3) 77 (52.7)  
 Education, N (%) 2072      .350
  High school or less 826 (39.9) 124 (36.5) 276 (40.5) 374 (41.5) 52 (34.9)  
  Up to 4y higher seducation 663 (32.0) 118 (34.7) 211 (31.8) 276 (30.6) 58 (38.9)  
  4y higher education sor more 583 (28.1) 98 (28.8) 195 (28.6) 251 (27.9) 39 (26.2)  
Outcome measures
 Global perceived effect – Improved 900 (65.0) 122 (55.5) 290 (64.2) 429 (71.1) 59 (54.1) <.001
 Main goal achieved 439 (42.6) 64 (42.7) 123 (37.4) 201 (45.8) 51 (50.0) .081
 PSFS change (− 10 to 10) 2.94 (2.98) 2.61 (2.96) 3.05 (2.94) 3.13 (3.04) d* 2.23 (2.7) c* .022
 Pain intensity change (−10 to 10) −1.12 (2.40) − 1.19 (2.36) d* −0.98 (2.35) −1.34 (2.41) d* −0.31 (2.43) ac* <.001
  1. M Mean, SD Standard deviation, HSCL10 Hopkins Symptom Check List 10 item version, higher is worse. Severity = average of pain intensity last week (0–10) and inverted rating of PSFS (0–10), higher is worse. y = years, m = months. P = X2/ANOVA. a: compared to symptom, b: compared to function/structure, c: compared to activity/participation, d: compared to non-classifiable. *: post hoc bonferroni ≤.05