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Table 2 Validity of the smartphone applications versus the 3DMA for each position

From: Validity and reliability of smartphone applications for measurement of hip rotation, compared with three‐dimensional motion analysis

Position ICC (lower, upper) SEM (°) %SEM LOA
Sitting IRa 0.89 (0.83, 0.93) 2.9 11.7 (16.5, 3.1)
Sitting ERa 0.70 (0.56, 0.80) 3.5 10.7 (15.2, -1.0)
Prone IRa 0.81 (0.71, 0.86) 4.3 13.1 (16.9, -6.1)
Prone ERa 0.79 (0.68, 0.86) 4.2 10.7 (18.7, -2.2)
Supine IRb 0.94 (0.91, 0.96) 2.2 7.5 (10.7, -0.9)
Supine ERb 0.73 (0.60, 0.82) 5.0 10.8 (22.8, 0.5)
  1. IR internal rotation; ER external rotation; ICC intraclass correlation coefficient; SEM standard error of measurement; LOA limit of agreement
  2. a Measured by The Bubble Level and Clinometer
  3. b Measured by The Accurate Compass