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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants by intervention group for All Workers and Neck Cases

From: A cluster-randomized trial of workplace ergonomics and neck-specific exercise versus ergonomics and health promotion for office workers to manage neck pain – a secondary outcome analysis

Variable All Workers
(N = 367)
Neck Cases
(N = 96)
EHP (N = 200) EET (N = 167) EHP (N = 55) EET (N = 41)
Demographic
 Age, years mean ± SD 44.1 ± 10.2 42.9 ± 10.4 43.6 ± 9.5 45.5 ± 10.9
 Gender, females n (%) 123 (61.5) 105 (62.9) 40 (73.0) 34 (83.0)
 Body mass index, kg/m2
mean ± SD
27.3 ± 5.5 26.9 ± 5.3 26.3 ± 4.1 25.5 ± 4.7
Highest Level of Education n (%)
 Primary to Year 12 46 (23.0) 39 (23.4) 10 (18.0) 8 (20.0)
 University 131 (65.5) 99 (59.3) 37 (67.0) 23 (56.0)
 Trade College 23 (11.5) 29 (17.4) 8 (5.0) 10 (24.0)
Workplace Measures
Occupational category n (%)
Manager/senior official 40 (20.0) 23 (13.8) 12 (22.0) 5 (12.0)
 Professional, associate professional, technical or other 93 (46.5) 84 (50.3) 25 (45.0) 21 (51.0)
 Administrative, secretarial, or personal services 67 (33.5) 60 (35.9) 18 (33.0) 15 (37.0)
Industry n (%)
 Local Government 16 (8.0) 11 (6.6) 3 (5.0) 4 (10.0)
 State Government 81 (40.5) 64 (38.3) 25 (45.0) 15 (37.0)
 Federal Government 33 (16.5) 22 (13.2) 10 (18.0) 6 (15.0)
 Private 47 (23.5) 50 (29.9) 11 (20.0) 12 (29.0)
 Other 23 (11.5) 20 (12.0) 6 (11.0) 4 (10.0)
Total hours worked in previous 7 days mean ± SD 38.3 ± 10.2 38.3 ± 8.2 39.1 ± 9.7 37.6 ± 6.9
Time using computer at work n (%)
  < 6 h/day 32 (16.0) 30 (18.0) 8 (15.0) 10 (24.0)
  ≥ 6 h/day 168 (84.0) 137 (82.0) 47 (85.0) 31 (76.0)
Total ergonomic score mean ± SD 30.5 ± 2.9 31.4 ± 2.7 30.0 ± 2.9 31.2 ± 3.0
Health Behaviour Measures
 Received workers’ compensation for neck/shoulder symptoms in previous 12 months n (%) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.6) 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Sought healthcare professional for neck/shoulder symptoms in previous 12 months n (%) 66 (33.0) 51 (30.5) 29 (53.0) 24 (59.0)
 Taken medication for neck/shoulder symptoms in previous 4 weeks n (%) 30 (15.0) 28 (16.8) 18 (33.0) 16 (39.0)
 Total number of comorbidities mean ± SD 0.8 ± 1.0 0.6 ± 0.9 0.9 ± 1.0 0.5 ± 0.8
Psychosocial Measures
Job Content Questionnaire mean ± SD
 Psychological Job Demands 8.5 ± 2.5 8.3 ± 2.5 9.0 ± 2.9 8.5 ± 2.5
 Physical Job Demands 3.2 ± 1.2 3.4 ± 1.3 3.2 ± 1.5 3.6 ± 1.3
 Job Control 21.5 ± 3.5 21.1 ± 2.8 21.3 ± 3.7 20.7 ± 3.1
 Social Support 15.6 ± 2.2 15.8 ± 2.5 15.6 ± 2.2 15.2 ± 3.1
 Psychological distress mean ± SD 3.6 ± 2.9 3.1 ± 2.8 4.4 ± 3.3 3.2 ± 2.8
 Health beliefs mean ± SD 3.7 ± 1.5 3.5 ± 1.6 3.9 ± 1.4 3.3 ± 1.7
 Job satisfaction mean ± SD 4.9 ± 1.1 5.0 ± 1.0 4.8 ± 1.0 4.8 ± 1.2
 Health-related Quality of Life mean ± SD 0.8 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.1 0.8 ± 0.1
IPAQ n (%)
 Low 74 (37.0) 60 (35.9) 20 (36.4) 14 (34.2)
 Moderate 109 (54.5) 88 (52.7) 32 (58.2) 23 (56.1)
 High 17 (8.5) 19 (11.4) 3 (5.5) 4 (9.8)
Intervention Adherence
 12 weeks - % Supervised sessions attended mean ± SD 67.4 ± 20.7 70.9 ± 21.1 69.7 ± 15.8 70.0 ± 19.1
 12 months – Participants regularly exercising (EET) or practicing lifestyle changes (EHP) n (%) 125 (62.5) 25 (15.4) 38 (69.1) 8 (21.1)
  1. boldface = significant between-group (i.e. EET & EHP) differences at p-value < 0.05
  2. EET  ergonomic and exercise intervention group, EHP   ergonomic and health promotion intervention group, SD  standard deviation