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Table 5 Associations between self-reported factors at baseline and pain at follow-up, stratified by pain at baseline

From: Neck and upper extremity pain in sonographers – a longitudinal study

 Model 5
 Pain at baselineNo pain at baseline
 N%PRCIN%PRCI
NECK/SHOULDERSa
Ergonomic adjustments possible
 Yes63(51)1 53(67)1 
 No61(49)1.10(0.98–1.24)24(30)1.49(0.85–2.58)
Visual conditions
 Yes35(29)1 44(56)1 
 No87(71)1.13(0.96–1.32)35(44)1.14(0.65–2.02)
Satisfaction with the computer work-station arrangements
 Very satisfied /Rather satisfied71(58)1 54(68)1 
 Neutral28(23)1.08(0.99–1.19)19(30)0.86(0.69–1.08)
 Rather/very dissatisfied23(19)0.98(0.79–1.22)5(2)1.20(0.78–1.85)
Mechanical exposure index score
 Unexposed/low (11–15 p)9(7)1   1 
 Medium/High (16–33 p)111(93)1.19(0.84–1.69)  2.01(0.98–4.14)
Job demands (cut-off: 2.44)
 Low56(55)1 49(62)1 
 High69(45)1.11(0.98–1.26)30(38)1.78(1.01–3.12)
ELBOWS/HANDSb
Sensory demands (cut-off: 80)
 Low30(48)1 82(56)1 
 High33(52)0.90(0.62–1.30)62(43)3.34(1.53–7.31)
  1. Pair-wise associations for conditions that were statistically significant in Model 3 (Tables 3 and 4), calculated with Poisson regression as the prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results in bold face are statistically significant
  2. aAdjusted for BMI and physical exercise
  3. bAdjusted for height and physical exercise