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Table 3 Associations between self-reported factors at baseline and musculoskeletal pain in the neck/shoulders at follow-up

From: Neck and upper extremity pain in sonographers – a longitudinal study

  Pain at follow-upModel 1aModel 2bModel 3cModel 4d
 NN (%)PRCIPRCIPRCIPRCI
Neck/shoulder pain at baseline
 No pain8028 (35)1 1   1 
 Pain125112 (90)2.56(1.88–3.47)2.54(1.88–3.42)  2.04(1.50–2.76)
Years as a professional sonographer
 0.1–1311076 (69)1 1     
 13.1–369463 (67)0.97(0.80–1.17)0.96(0.79–1.16)    
Working hours/week
 20–369659 (61)1 1     
 37–4110981 (74)1.21(0.99–1.47)1.19(0.97–1.46)    
Echocardiography
 No5439 (72)1 1     
 Yes151101 (66)1.08(0.89–1.31)1.10(0.89–1.35)    
Bedside examinations
 No/Seldom14292 (65)1 1     
 A few times per week/Daily6247 (76)1.17(0.97–1.41)1.18(0.98–1.42)    
Ergonomic adjustments possible
 Yes11671 (61)1 1 1 1 
 No8568 (80)1.31(1.10–1.56)1.33(1.11–1.59)1.25(1.05–1.49)1.13(0.97–1.32)
Good visual conditions
 Yes7944 (55)1 1 1   
 No12294 (77)1.38(1.11–1.72)1.43(1.15–1.78)1.24(1.00–1.54)  
Satisfaction with computer workstation arrangements
 Very satisfied/Rather satisfied12580 (64)1 1 1 1 
 Neutral4732 68)1.04(0.89–1.22)1.04(0.89–1.21)1.04(0.84–1.29)1.03(0.87–1.23)
 Rather/Very dissatisfied2825 (90)1.29(1.11–1.48)1.25(1.08–1.44)1.06(0.87–1.29)1.01(0.85–1.21)
MEI (mechanical exposure index)
 Unexposed/Low (11–15)3012 (40)1 1 1 1 
 Medium/High (16–33)165124 (75)1.88(1.20–2.94)1.94(1.27–2.99)1.66(1.09–2.52)1.34(0.90–1.99)
Job demands (cut-off: 2.44)
 Low10561 (58)1 1     
 High9979 (80)1.37(1.14–1.66)1.38(1.15–1.67)1.13(0.94–1.36)  
Job control (cut-off: 2.83)
 Low11283 (74)1 1     
 High9257 (62)0.84(0.69–1.02)0.84(0.70–1.10)    
Job support (cut-off: 2.87)
 Low12089 (74)1 1     
 High8439 (46)0.82(0.67–1.00)0.85(0.68–1.02)    
Sensory demands (cut-off: 80)
 Low5534 (62)1 1   1 
 High149106 (71)1.09(0.91–1.32)1.15(0.91–1.32)  1.12(0.95–1.33)
  1. Calculated with Poisson regression as the prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results in boldface are statistically significant
  2. a Pair-wise, unadjusted
  3. b Pair- wise, adjusted for BMI and physical exercise
  4. c Multivariate model with exposures with p < 0.05 in model 2, adjusted for BMI and physical exercise
  5. d Multivariate model with exposures with p < 0.05 in model 2, adjusted for BMI and physical exercise and for pain at baseline