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Table 3 Demographic, laboratory, and disease-related variables in HIV-infected patients with normal TBS and low TBS

From: Trabecular bone scores in young HIV-infected men: a matched case-control study

Variables (N (%) or mean ± SD)Normal TBS (< 1.31, N = 74)Low TBS (≤1.31, N = 6)P-value
Demographic findings
 Age, years38.4 ± 8.737.7 ± 7.60.83
 BMI (kg/m2)22.9 ± 2.823.4 ± 5.50.84
 Currently smoking34 (45.9%)2 (33.3%)0.550
 Alcohol ≥3 units/day3 (4.1%)0 (0%)0.615
 Previous fracture8 (10.8%)2 (33.3%)0.109
 Underlying disease
  Diabetes mellitus3 (4.1%)0 (0%)0.615
  Hypertension4 (5.4%)0 (0%)0.559
  Dyslipidemia8 (10.8%)0 (0%)0.395
Laboratory findings
 Total lymphocyte2921.7 ± 1481.32393.8 ± 660.50.39
 Urea nitrogen (mg/dl)13.4 ± 3.510.9 ± 2.50.10
 Creatinine (mg/dl)0.9 ± 0.10.77 ± 0.080.003
 Calcium (mg/dl)9.1 ± 0.39.3 ± 0.20.21
 Phosphorus (mg/dl)3.3 ± 0.53.6 ± 0.470.19
 ESR (mm/h)9.3 ± 9.112.1 ± 6.80.46
 Hemoglobin (g/dl)15.3 ± 1.014.6 ± 0.40.12
 Platelet (103/μl)228 ± 40227 ± 300.97
 Alkaline phosphatase (U/l)65.2 ± 18.258.5 ± 14.80.38
 25[OH]D (ng/ml)21.2 ± 8.220.4 ± 6.10.80
 C-peptide (μg/ml)0.4 ± 0.20.23 ± 0.070.08
 Osteocalcin (μg/ml)19.1 ± 8.616.2 ± 4.30.41
HIV-specific factors
 Duration since HIV diagnosis (days)2665.2 ± 1827.92101.2 ± 1704.10.47
 Nadir CD4 T-cell counts (cells/μl)273.3 ± 158.2360.0 ± 135.20.77
 RNA level (copies/ml)151,420.4 ± 380,279.027,523.1 ± 54,226.90.37
 Current CD4 count (cells/μl)668.2 ± 280.7679.3 ± 130.00.92
 Current proportion with plasma HIV-1 RNA levels < 40 copies/ml69 (93.2%)6 (100%)0.511
 On ART73 (98.6%)5 (83.3%)0.02
 NNRTI27 (36.5%)1 (16.7%) 
 Protease inhibitor27 (36.5%)1 (16.7%) 
 Integrase inhibitor18 (24.3%)3 (50%) 
 On TDF37 (50.0%)3 (50.0%)1.00
 Duration of ART by regimen type, days
  NRTI1964.9 ± 1550.61097.7 ± 1156.10.18
  NNRTI1304.5 ± 1217.0570.0 ± 476.50.40
  PI1234.5 ± 1479.9870.6 ± 1195.80.59
  Integrase inhibitor155.4 ± 425.8181.5 ± 271.40.88
  TDF671.2 ± 429.2709.7 ± 226.90.89
  1. SD Standard deviation, BMI Body mass index, ESR Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ART Anti-retroviral therapy, TDF Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, NRTI Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, NNRTI Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, PI Protease inhibitor