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Table 4 Comparison between the cases without lumbar surgery and those with lumbar surgery

From: Surgical outcomes of the thoracic ossification of ligamentum flavum: a retrospective analysis of 61 cases

  Only thoracic OLF operation n = 33 Additional lumbar operation n = 13
Age, average, average (range), years 66.3 ± 12.8 (27–90) 66.5 ± 14.2 (33–81)
Sex, female/male, No. 14/19 2/11
Duration of disease, average (range), months 18.5 ± 29.2 (1-144) 20.2 ± 21.7 (3–72)
MMT, average (range), Preoperative 3.1 ± 1.5 (0–5) 3.1 ± 1.5 (0–5)
Operation Surgical procedure LAM/PDF, No 22/11 9/4
Decompressed OLF levels, average (range), No. 1.5 ± 0.8 (1–4) 1.4 ± 0.7 (1–3)
Operative time, average (range), min 133.9 ± 90.8 (48–460) 215.5 ± 98.7 (60–436)*
Blood loss, average (range), mL 127.2 ± 185.1 (1-893) 496.8 ± 1097.9 (1-4090)
Outcomes T-JOA score, average (range), points Prethoracic operative 5.5 ± 1.9 (2–10) 6.3 ± 2.0 (3-9.5)
Prelumbar operative - 6.5 ± 2.0 (3.5–9.5)
Postoperative 7.7 ± 1.5 (5.5–11)♰ 8.0 ± 1.8 (4.5–11)♰$
Recovery rate of T-JOA score, average (range), % 35.7 ± 29.6 (-10-88.9) 38.1 ± 28.6 (0-100)
L-JOA score, average (range), points Preoperative - 14.5 ± 4.7 (9–24)
Postoperative - 20.7 ± 2.6 (16–26)$
Recovery rate of L-JOA score, average (range), % - 41.4 ± 12.5 (20.0-68.4)
VAS, average (range), mm Preoperative 76.5 ± 23.9 (30–100) 73.6 ± 24.2 (30–100)
Postoperative 56.5 ± 32.1 (10–100)♰ 52.5 ± 20.8 (0–70)♰
  1. Abbreviation: MMT manual muscle test, T-JOA the Japanese Orthopaedic Association for thoracic myelopathy, L-JOA the Japanese Orthopaedic Association for Lumbar spinal canal stenosis, VAS visual analog scale, LAM laminectomy, PDF posterior decompression with fusion, OLF ossification of the ligamentum flavum
  2. *p < 0.05 when compared to the only thoracic OLF operation group
  3. p < 0.05 when compared to the prethoracic operative status
  4. $p < 0.05 when compared to the prelumbar operative status