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Table 5 Multivariable analysis of the ergonomic predictors of work-related musculoskeletal disorders

From: Prevalence and predictors of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among workers of a gold mine in south Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo

Ergonomic factors Self-reported WRMSDs in the past 12 months (%) Unadjusted Model Adjusted model
Yes (n = 49) No (n = 147) PR [95% CI] PR [95% CI]
Age in years
  < 30 9 (24.3) 28 (75.7) 1    1
 30–34 12 (22.2) 42 (77. 8) 0.91 [0.43, 1.95]   0.94 (0.39, 2.25)
 35–39 8 (16.7) 40 (83.3) 0.69 [0.29, 1.61]   0.78 (0.28, 2.18)
  ≥ 40 20 (35.1) 37 (64.9) 1.44 [0.74, 2.82]   2.04 (0.96, 4.37)
Level of education
 Primary 5 (29.4) 12 (70.6) 1    1
 Secondary 18 (21.7) 65 (78.3) 0.74 [0.32, 1.72]   0.39 (0.18, 0.85) *
 Tertiary 24 (25.5) 70 (74.5) 0.87 [0.38, 1.96]   0.81 (0.42, 1.57)
Experience
 1–5 years 29 (20.4) 113 (79.6) 1    1
  > 5 years 20 (37.0) 34 (63.0) 1.81 [1.13, 2.92]*   1.23 (0.73, 2.07)
Duration of the Shifts      
  ≤ 9 h 2 (6.1) 31 (93.9) 1   1  
  > 9 h 47 (28.8) 116 (71.2) 4.76 [1.21, 18.69] * 3.56 [1.76, 16.58] *
Heavy/frequent lifting / lowering / shoveling
 No exposure 17 (24.6) 52 (75.4) 1   1  
 Caution 15 (16.3) 77 (83.7) 0.66 [0.36, 1.23] 0.50 [0.27, 1.04]
 Hazard 17 (48.6) 18 (51.4) 1.97 [1.15, 3.37] ** 1.69 [1.32, 3.24] *
Awkward postures
 No exposure 9 (18.8) 39 (81.28) 1   1  
 Caution 15 (19.2) 63 (80.8) 1.03 [0.49, 2.16] 1.38 [0.67, 2.86]
 Hazard 25 (35.7) 45 (64.3) 1.90 [0.98, 3.72] 1.26 [0.63, 2.54]
High hand force
 No exposure 15 (25.9) 43 (74.1) 1    
 Caution 11 (17.5) 52 (82.5) 0.68 [0.34, 1.35]   
 Hazard 23 (30. 7) 52 (69.3) 1.19 [0.68, 2.06]   
Highly repetitive work
 No exposure 18 (20.9) 68 (79.1) 1    
 Caution 18 (27.3) 48 (72.7) 1.30 [0.74, 2.31]   
 Hazard 13 (29.6) 31 (70.4) 1.41 [0.76, 2.61]   
Vibrating tools
 No exposure 23 (20.5) 89 (79.5) 1    
 Caution 12 (24.0) 38 (76.0) 1.17 [0.63, 2.16]   
 Hazard 14 (41.2) 20 (58.8) 2.01 [1.16, 3.45] **   
Bouncing
 No exposure 21 (19.6) 86 (80.4) 1    
 Caution 9 (24.3) 28 (75.7) 1.24 [0.62, 2.46]   
 Hazard 19 (36.5)) 33 (63.5) 1.86 [1.10, 3.15] *   
Static postures
 No exposure 10 (16.1) 52 (83.9) 1    
 Caution 22 (31.0) 49 (69.0) 1.92 [0.99, 3.74]   
 Hazard 17 (27.0) 46 (73.0) 1.67 [0.83, 3.37]   
Pushing and pulling
 No exposure 21 (22.3) 73 (77.7) 1    
 Caution 20 (28.2) 51 (71.8) 1.26 [0.74, 2.14]   
 Hazard 8 (25.8) 23 (74.2) 1.16 [0.57, 2.34]