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Table 2 Results of comparison of the outcome measures in both groups and between groups

From: The effect of Kinesio taping on cervical proprioception in athletes with mechanical neck pain—a placebo-controlled trial

  KT Group (n = 33) Placebo Group (n = 33) MD (95% CI) (lower limit, upper limit) Cohen’s d p-value
Flexion JPE (0)     0.77  
 Baseline 5.6 ± 1.4 5.1 ± 1.2 0.5 (− 0.1, 1.1)   0.130
 3 days 4.3 ± 1.5 5.0 ± 1.5 0.7 (−1.5, − 0.1)   0.046
 7 days 2.6 ± 1.2 4.7 ± 1.4 2.1 (1.4, 2.7)   < 0.001
p-value < 0.001 0.001    
Extension JPE (0)     0.85  
 Baseline 6.6 ± 1.6 6.33 ± 1.70 0.2 (−0.5, 1.0)   0.508
 3 days 5.5 ± 1.5 6.52 ± 1.50 1.0 (0.2, 1.7)   0.010
 7 days 3.5 ± 1.6 6.03 ± 1.94 2.4 (1.7, 3.3)   < 0.001
p-value < 0.001 0.003    
LT Rotation (0)     0.69  
 Baseline 5.3 ± 1.4 5.1 ± 1.3 0.2 (−0.4, 0.9)   0.424
 3 days 4.3 ± 1.3 4.9 ± 1.5 0.6 (− 0.0, 1.3)   0.064
 7 days 3.3 ± 1.0 4.8 ± 1.5 1.4 (0.8, 2.1)   < 0.001
p-value < 0.001 0.057    
RT Rotation (0)     0.59  
 Baseline 5.0 ± 1.3 4.7 ± 1.1 0.3 (−0.2, 0.9)   0.289
 3 days 4.0 ± 1.2 4.7 ± 1.3 0.6 (0.1, 1.3)   0.034
 7 days 2.9 ± 1.0 4.9 ± 1.2 1.9 (1.3, 2.4)   < 0.001
p-value < 0.001 0.008    
Pain intensity (VAS)     0.57  
 Baseline 5.46 ± 1.44 4.97 ± 1.42 0.49 (−0.21, 1.19)   0.167
 3 days 4.61 ± 1.40 4.89 ± 1.49 0.26 (− 0.44, 0.98)   0.451
 7 days 3.24 ± 0.91 4.64 ± 1.39 1.40 (0.82, 1.98)   < 0.001
p-value < 0.001 0.102    
Functional Disability (NDI)     0.03  
 Baseline 32.18 ± 9.50 31.45 ± 8.64 0.72 (−3.74, 5.19)   0.746
 3 days 31.90 ± 9.46 31.21 ± 8.63 0.69 (−3.75, 5.15)   0.756
 7 days 31.21 ± 8.43 31.27 ± 8.69 0.06 (−4.15, 4.27)   0.977
p-value 0.009 0.045    
  1. KT Kinesio™ tape, MD Mean difference, JPE Joint position error, LT left, RT Right, VAS visual analog scale, NDI neck disability index