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Table 1 Baseline demographics, clinical characteristics, and surgical characteristics of the elective posterior lumbar fusion patient population

From: The incidence of stroke among selected patients undergoing elective posterior lumbar fusion: a retrospective cohort study

Characteristic, N (%) except where specified Number of patients %
Total 43,063  
Demographic characteristics
Age (years) at index date
  Mean (SD) 59.4 (13.69)  
  Median (Range) 61 (18, 85)  
   ≥ 18–55 15,221 35.35
  56–65 11,639 27.03
  66–75 11,579 26.89
  76 - < 86 4624 10.74
Race
  White 38,535 89.49
  Black or African American 2556 5.94
  Asian 223 0.52
  Other/Unknown 1749 4.06
Sex
  Male 20,563 47.75
  Female 22,487 52.22
  Unknown 13 0.03
Clinical & surgical characteristics in 183-day baseline
Arthritis and other inflammation (or rheumatic events)
  Rheumatoid arthritis 0 0.00
  Reactive arthritis 579 1.34
  Psoriatic arthroplasty 42 0.10
  Spondyloarthritis, including ankylosing spondylitis 1476 3.43
Blood disorders
  Anemia/other anemia 3494 8.11
  Intracranial Hemorrhage 52 0.12
  Gastrointestinal bleeding 216 0.50
  Thrombocytopenia 333 0.77
Cardiovascular events and/or conditions
  Acute myocardial infarction 270 0.63
  Angina 1997 4.64
  Cardiac dysrhythmias 3997 9.28
  Stroke 293 0.68
  Chronic ischemic disease 3876 9.00
  Peripheral vascular disease 1811 4.21
Dementia
  Dementia 130 0.30
Diabetes   
  Diabetes, type 1 272 0.63
  Diabetes, type 2 5970 13.86
Digestive disorders
  Crohn’s disease 73 0.17
  Ulcerative colitis 71 0.16
  Peptic ulcer disease 240 0.56
Hepatic disorders
  Liver disease and cirrhosis 607 1.41
Nervous system disorders
  Guillain-Barre syndrome 0 0.00
  Multiple sclerosis 105 0.24
Respiratory disorders
  Asthma/wheezing/bronchospasm 3353 7.79
  Bronchitis/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 2315 5.38
  Obstructive asthma 1126 2.61
Surgical characteristics
  Existing permanently implanted device or prosthesis at baseline 1270 2.95
  Total length of hospital stay   
  Mean (SD) 3.8 (3.4)  
  Median (Min, Max) 3 (1, 90)  
  History of allogenic blood transfusion during surgery 1 0.00
  Revisional surgery on the same day as index surgery 320 0.74
  Use of implanted material during surgery on the same day as index surgery 2667 6.19
Thrombotic events
  Deep vein thrombosis 386 0.90
  Pulmonary embolism 170 0.39
Thyroid disorders
  Grave’s disease 37 0.09
  Autoimmune thyroiditis 55 0.13
  Hyperthyroidism 109 0.25
  Hypothyroidism 3455 8.02
  Thyroiditis 6 0.01