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Table 1 Characteristics of cohort by pre-surgical opioid use status

From: Associations between pre-surgical daily opioid use and short-term outcomes following knee or hip arthroplasty: a prospective, exploratory cohort study

 Non-opioid user
N = 439a
Opioid user
N = 82a
P-value
Wait time for surgery, days332.6 (53)307.0 (93)0.017
Age68.0 (9.8)67.3 (9.0)0.536
Male154 (35.1)26 (31.7)0.556
Body mass index32.5 (6.3)35.1 (8.4)0.001
Total hip arthroplasty108 (24.6)32 (39.0)0.007
Unilateral procedure423 (96.4)80 (97.6)0.583
Osteoarthritis420 (95.7)78 (95.1)0.824
ASA score 3 or 4 (n = 517)198 (45.5)48 (58.5)0.030
Education level (n = 498)  0.028
 Yr 8 or below127 (30.3)12 (15.2) 
 Yrs 9–10169 (40.3)38 (48.1) 
 Yrs 11–1294 (22.4)25 (31.7) 
Degree29 (6.9)4 (5.1) 
Employed (n = 460)79 (20.2)13 (18.8)0.794
Daily simple analgesics (n = 520)241 (55.0)46 (56.1)0.856
Daily nonsteroidal medication (n = 518)100 (22.9)25 (30.9)0.123
Requiring an interpreter141 (32.1)14 (17.1)0.006
Current smoker31 (7.1)16 (19.5)0.0003
Alcohol use daily (2 or more) (n = 499)18 (4.3)6 (7.6)0.25
Other lower limb or back pain (n = 499)250 (59.5)52 (65.8)0.29
Heart disease106 (24.2)22 (26.8)0.60
Diabetes (1 or 2)103 (23.5)18 (22.0)0.766
Chronic lung disease83 (18.9)19 (23.2)0.37
Mental health condition66 (15.0)23 (28.1)0.004
Central nervous system disorder41 (9.3)7 (8.5)0.818
Hypertension297 (67.7)59 (72.0)0.443
Oxford knee or hip scoreb pre-surgery, n = 42218.7 (8.3)15.2 (7.5)0.001
EQ VASc pre-surgery, n = 42164.4 (22.0)60.2 (20.0)0.146
  1. amaximum for any variable; data are n (%) or mean (SD); (n = sample, denotes when sample incomplete); b higher scores are better (maximum 48); c Higher score is better (maximum 100)