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Table 2 Summary of therapeutic modalities performed in the included studies

From: Prognostic factors for overall survival in patients with spinal metastasis secondary to prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study IDTreatment of primary prostate cancerAdjuvant therapies prior to major treatmentMajor treatmentAdjuvant therapies after major treatmentIndication for surgeryReoperationComplications
Ju, 2013 [15]1) radical prostatectomy (n = 8);
2) TURP (n = 2);
3) EBRT (n = 14);
4) hormone treatment (23 GnRH agonists/ 1 orchiectomy)(n = 24);
5) chemotherapy (n = 10)
1) narcotics for pain management (n = 25);
2) steroids (n = 25);
3) RT to spinal lesions (n = 25)
a total of 31 procedures:
1)PDC(n = 24), ADC(n = 3), APDC(n = 4);
2) decompressive laminectomy (n = 12); corpectomy /+laminectomy (n = 19);
3)instrumentation: anterior(n = 3), posterior(n = 14), anterior+posterior(n = 11)
1) RT (n = 14)1) rapidly progressive neurological deterioration;
2) spinal mechanical instability
4 for SCC16
Meng, 2016 [16]NAnone1) thoracic and lumbar metastases:
PDC + pedicle screws and rods +titanium mesh (n = 10)/ cement-wire construct (n = 14);
2) cervical metastases: ADC (n = 1) /PDC(n = 3) /APDC(n = 1) + stable-angle plate osteosynthesis +pedicle screws
1)BP(n = 16)1) rapidly progressive neurological deterioration;
2) pathologic fracture
NA9
Huddart, 1997 [21]NA1)high-dose steroids(n = 47);
2) hormone therapy (n = 69)
1) RT (n = 57);
2) operation (n = 13)
noneNA
Williams, 2009 [22]1) radical prostatectomy(n = 10);
2) EBRT (n = 24);
3) hormone treatment with LHRH agonists or orchiectomy (n = 44);
4) chemotherapy (n = 35)
1)narcotics(n = 40);
2)steroids(n = 28);
3) RT (n = 24)
a total of 47 procedures:
1)PDC(n = 19), ADC(n = 14), APDC(n = 14);
2)instrumentation: anterior (n = 10), posterior (n = 14), anterior +posterior (n = 7), PMMA (n = 12)
1) RT (n = 11);
2)narcotics;
3)steroids
1) intractable pain;
2) SCC;
3) progressive spinal involvement
315
Rades, 2012 [23]NANA1)short-course RT (n = 243);
2)longer-course RT(n = 193)
NANA
Crnalic, 2011 [24]1) LHRH agonists (n = 34);
2) orchiectomy (n = 20);
3) radical prostatectomy (n = 1);
4) curative RT (n = 3);
5)antiandrogens(n = 29);
6) chemotherapy (n = 5)
1) high-dose steroids (n = 51);
2) RT to other site (n = 17);
3) RT to spinal site (n = 6);
4)BP(n = 3);
5) radioisotopes (n = 4);
6)low-dose prednisone (n = 11)
1) PDC (n = 29);
2)PDC + pedicle screws /+ hooks (n = 25)
1) RT (n = 35);
2) chemotherapy (n = 10);
3)BP(n = 8)
1) neurological defcit due to SCC1 for subdural hematoma19
Drzymalski, 2010 [25]NANANANANA
Crnalic, 2012 [14]1) LHRH agonists (n = 44);
2) orchiectomy (n = 24);
3) radical prostatectomy (n = 2);
4) curative radiation therapy (n = 7);
5) antiandrogens (n = 35);
6) chemotherapy (n = 10);
7) radioisotopes (n = 5)
1)high-dose steroids (n = 64);
2) radiotherapy to other metastases (n = 23);
3) zoledronic acid (n = 4);
4)low-dose prednisone (n = 11)
1)PDC(n = 42);
2)PDC+ pedicle screws /+ hooks(n = 26)
1) RT (n = 44)1) neurological deficitNA24
Zakaria, 2018 [26]NA1) BP (n = 61);
2)anti-angiogenic drugs(n = 11)
1)SBRT(n = 92)NANA
Rades, 2015 [27]NANA1)short-course RT (n = 144);
2)longer-course RT(n = 99)
NANA
Lehrmann-Lerche, 2019 [28]1) castrationbased therapy (n = 76)1)high-dose corticosteroids (n = 76)1)RT(n = 72);
2) decompression surgery+RT (n = 4)
NANA
Weber, 2013 [29]NANA1) RT (n = 95)NANA
  1. TURP Transurethral resection of the prostate, GnRH Gonadotropin-releasing hormone, PDC Posterior decompression, ADC Anterior decompression, APDC Anterior-posterior decompression, SCC Spinal cord compression, LHRH Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, PMMA Polymethylmethacrylate, RT Radiation therapy, BP Bisphosphonates, NA Not available