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Table 2 Self-efficacy for pain at baseline, association with pain and physical activity at the follow-ups

From: High self-efficacy – a predictor of reduced pain and higher levels of physical activity among patients with osteoarthritis: an observational study

  Paina Physical activityb
Unadjusted modelc Adjusted modelc Unadjusted modelc Adjusted modelc
LSM ± SE p-value Effect size (f2)d LSM ± SE p-value LSM ± SE p-value Effect size (f2)d LSM ± SE p-value
Intercept     31.67 ± 0.81 < 0.01*     5.27 ± 0.15 < 0.01*
Time      < 0.01*      < 0.01*
1 = Baseline (ref)     47.98 ± 0.40      4.92 ± 0.08
2 = 3 months     37.07 ± 0.41      5.15 ± 0.08
3 = 1 year     37.47 ± 0.43      4.86 ± 0.08
Self-efficacy for pain management      < 0.01*      < 0.01*
0 = ≤62 (ref)     44.26 ± 0.40      4.90 ± 0.08
1 = > 62     37.43 ± 0.40      5.05 ± 0.07
Gender   < 0.01* 0.002   < 0.01*   < 0.01 0.010   < 0.01*
1 = Male 42.81 ± 0.28    40.25 ± 0.42   4.98 ± 0.03    4.73 ± 0.05
2 = Female (ref) 43.99 ± 0.18    41.45 ± 0.38   5.37 ± 0.05    5.07 ± 0.04
Age, yrs   0.05 0.001   0.06   < 0.01 0.003   < 0.01*
1 = ≤45 (ref) 44.80 ± 0.81    41.21 ± 0.72   4.63 ± 0.16    4.54 ± 0.08
2 = 46–75 43.77 ± 0.16    41.09 ± 0.32   5.27 ± 0.03    5.06 ± 0.04
3 = > 75 42.95 ± 0.39    40.26 ± 0.43   5.32 ± 0.08    5.10 ± 0.05
Born in Sweden   < 0.01* 0.002   < 0.01*   0.08 0.001   0.10
0 = No 48.26 ± 0.53    42.61 ± 0.52   5.10 ± 0.10    4.79 ± 0.06
1 = Yes (ref) 43.29 ± 0.15    39.09 ± 0.33   5.27 ± 0.03    5.01 ± 0.04
Marital status   < 0.01* 0.001   0.13   0.04 0.001   0.08
1 = Cohabiting (ref) 43.35 ± 0.17    40.65 ± 0.39   5.30 ± 0.03    4.90 ± 0.05
2 = Living alone 44.47 ± 0.28    41.05 ± 0.42   5.36 ± 0.05    4.89 ± 0.05
Education   < 0.01* 0.001   < 0.01*   0.09 0.000   0.15
1 = Compulsory school (ref) 44.41 ± 0.24    41.81 ± 0.42   5.32 ± 0.04    4.92 ± 0.05
2 = Upper secondary school 44.59 ± 0.25    42.06 ± 0.40   5.18 ± 0.05    4.88 ± 0.05
3 = University 41.39 ± 0.28    38.68 ± 0.42   5.27 ± 0.05    4.89 ± 0.05
Affected other hip/knee   < 0.01* 0.001   < 0.01*   0.81 0.000   0.79
0 = No 41.36 ± 0.22    39.00 ± 0.40   5.27 ± 0.04    4.89 ± 0.05
1 = Yes (ref) 45.86 ± 0.21    42.70 ± 0.40   5.25 ± 0.04    4.90 ± 0.05
Most affected joint   < 0.01* 0.001   < 0.01*   0.08 0.001   0.61
1 = Hip (ref) 45.36 ± 0.27    42.68 ± 0.42   5.32 ± 0.04    4.89 ± 0.05
2 = Knee 42.94 ± 0.18    39.02 ± 0.39   5.25 ± 0.02    4.90 ± 0.05
Difficulty walking   < 0.01* 0.025   < 0.01*   < 0.01 0.002   0.03*
0 = No (ref) 32.21 ± 0.36    34.86 ± 0.45   5.46 ± 0.05    4.84 ± 0.04
1 = Yes 45.81 ± 0.16    46.82 ± 0.37   5.23 ± 0.02    4.95 ± 0.05
BMI, kg/m2   < 0.01* 0.008   0.05   < 0.01 0.054   < 0.01*
1 = Underweight < 18.5 43.21 ± 0.92    40.40 ± 0.82   5.31 ± 0.14    4.74 ± 0.10
2 = Normal weight 18.5–24.9 (ref) 40.61 ± 0.29    38.83 ± 0.38   5.57 ± 0.04    5.28 ± 0.05
3 = Overweight 25–29.9 43.06 ± 0.22    40.45 ± 0.36   5.33 ± 0.03    5.00 ± 0.04
4 = Obese ≥ 30 47.40 ± 0.28    43.70 ± 0.39   4.86 ± 0.04    4.56 ± 0.05
  1. Self-efficacy for pain management at baseline, and association with pain and physical activity at the follow-ups. Estimated least squares means from unadjusted and adjusted models for pain and physical activity using self-efficacy for pain management as a fixed factor in all models. Effect sizes are from the unadjusted model for each demographic and clinical characteristic
  2. BMI body mass index, LSM least squares means, ref. reference category, SE standard error
  3. aMeasured using a VAS from 0 to 100; bdays per week of being physically active for ≥30 min; cMixed linear model analysis with a restricted maximum likelihood method; deffect size interpreted according to Cohen’s guidelines: ≥0.02 = small; ≥0.15 = medium; ≥0.35 = large [35]
  4. *p-value< 0.05