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Table 2 Background characteristics

From: Association of Modic change types and their short tau inversion recovery signals with clinical characteristics- a cross sectional study of chronic low back pain patients in the AIM-study

  N Type 1 MCs Type 2 MCs P-value
Age, mean ± SD 180 45.3 ± 9.2 44.4 ± 8.6 0.54
Female, n (%) 180 70 (59%) 35 (56%) 0.71
Body mass index (BMI), mean ± SD 178 25.6 ± 4.0 26.9 ± 4.1 0.046
Smoking, n (%) 178 31 (27%) 15 (24%) 0.71
Educational level, n (%) 177    0.41
 Primary school (9 years)   12 (10%) 7 (11%)  
 High school (12 years)   48 (42%) 30 (48%)  
 College/University < 4 year   28 (24%) 17 (27%)  
 College/University ≥4 year   27 (23%) 8 (13%)  
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Diabetes 180 2 (2%) 1 (2%) 0.97
 Psychiatric disease 180 5 (4%) 3 (5%) 0.85
 Obesity 180 19 (16%) 10 (16%) 0.98
RMDQ, mean ± SD 178 12.6 ± 4.0 13.0 ± 4.6 0.58
Low back pain intensity, 0–10 NRS, mean ± SD 177 6.4 ± 1.2 6.2 ± 1.6 0.44
Leg pain intensity, 0–10 NRS, mean ± SD 179 3.0 ± 2.6 3.6 ± 2.5 0.17
EQ-5D, median (IQR) 179 0.60 (0.46–0.68) 0.56 (0.36–0.67) 0.28a
Emotional distress (HSCL −25) ≥1.75, n (%) 179 26 (22%) 21 (34%) 0.09
FABQ physical activity, 0–42, mean ± SD 179 12.2 ± 6.0 11.4 ± 5.7 0.39
FABQ work, 0–42, mean ± SD 176 17.0 ± 11.8 19.8 ± 11.9 0.15
Duration of low back pain, years median (IQR) 177 3 (1.7–6.3) 3.3 (1.3–6) 0.47a
Physical workload, n (%) 151    0.14
 Job requires walking and lifting a lot or physically heavy work   28 (28%) 20 (39%)  
Level with Modic change, n (%)
 L1/L2 180 0 0
 L2/L3 180 4 (3%) 0 0.14
 L3/L4 180 7 (6%) 5 (8%) 0.59
 L4/L5 180 52 (44%) 25 (40%) 0.63
 L5/S1 180 84 (71%) 48 (77%) 0.37
Concomitant medication, n (%)
 Analgesics, any b   77 (65%) 46 (74%) 0.22
 Opioids (tramadol or codeine)   28 (24%) 27 (44%) 0.006
  1. RMDQ Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Pain and disability measure, ranges from 0 to 24, with a lower score indicating less severe pain and disability [46, 47]
  2. NRS Numerical Rating Scale. A mean of three NRS scores; current pain, worst pain within the last 2 weeks, and usual/mean pain within the last 2 weeks. Used for low back pain intensity [33] and leg pain intensity [35]
  3. EQ-5D Health related quality of life scores (EuroQoL -5D5L, version 2.0) [61]. Measured on 5 dimensions: mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression, with a score 1–5 on each dimension. These values are converted to a single summary index by applying a ‘crosswalk value set’ for UK, giving a score from −0.59 to 1.0 (higher scores indicate a higher quality of life)
  4. HSCL Hopkins Symptom Checklist–25 [31]. A measure of emotional distress
  5. FABQ Fear-avoidance beliefs Questionnaire [32]
  6. IQR Interquartile range (25th percentile - 75th percentile)
  7. aNon-parametric test
  8. bIncluding paracetamol/acetaminophen, NSAIDs, phenazone, acetylsalicylic acid and opioids (tramadol or codeine)