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Table 2 Baseline- (T0), follow up- (T1) and change- (Δ T0-T1) scores, and effect sizes for pain, physical functioning and forefoot plantar pressure in the total group (n = 38)

From: Outcomes and potential mechanism of a protocol to optimize foot orthoses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Analysed patientsNT0T1Δ T0-T1ESP-value
pain
  FFI pain (range 0–100), primary outcome3842.53 (23.92)28.66 (23.50)−13.87 (20.00)0.69< 0.001
  NRS foot pain during walking (range 0–10)385.03 (2.49)3.37 (2.76)−1.66 (2.15)0.77< 0.001
  NRS foot pain during standing (range 0–10)373.95 (2.84)2.97 (2.70)−0.97 (2.28)0.430.014
physical functioning
  FFI disability (range 0–100), primary outcome3832.47 (23.38)22.40 (24.66)−10.07 (12.25)0.82< 0.001
  10-m walking time, seconds378.78 (1.97)8.30 (1.33)−0.49 (1.48)0.330.054
observed forefoot plantar pressure
  PP central forefoot (kPa)38246.98 (78.22)236.62 (89.28)−10.37 (76.62)0.140.40
  PTI central forefoot (kPa s)3868.84 (28.21)61.61 (20.27)−7.23 (20.64)0.350.033
Analysed feetN  Δ T0-T1 P-value
estimated forefoot plantar pressure
  PP central forefoot (kPa)72  −14.20 (10.27)* 0.18
  PTI central forefoot (kPa s)72  −7.07 (2.23)* 0.003
  1. Values are presented as mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated. * Values are presented as estimated mean difference and standard error. PP Peak Pressure, PTI Pressure Time Integral, FFI foot function index, NRS numeric rating scale, ES effect size