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Table 2 Study characteristics

From: Exercise for people with a fragility fracture of the pelvis or lower limb: a systematic review of interventions evaluated in clinical trials and reporting quality

Characteristic  
Year published (N = 37)
 1997–2001 3
 2002–2006 12
 2007–2011 9
 2012–2016 11
 2017–2019 2
Country (N = 37)
 Australia 10
 USA 8
 Sweden, UK 3
 Norway 2
 Canada, Egypt, Finland, Germany, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand 1
RCT design (N = 37)
 Parallel 35
 Factorial 2
 Cluster 0
 Other 0
Number of intervention groups (N = 37)
 2 31
 3 3
 4 3
Participants
 Total all studies (median; IQR) (N = 36) 3565 (80.5; 47.5 to 123.5)
 Age median (IQR) (N = 32) 80.75 (79.29 to 82.24)
 Gender (male: female) (N = 32) 820: 2536
Fracture types (N = 37)
 Pelvic 0
 Hipa 36
 Tibia (diaphysis/metaphyseal) 0
 Femur (diaphysis/distal metaphyseal) 0
 Knee 0
 Ankle 1
 Foot 0
 Mixture of lower limb fractures 0
Orthopaedic management (N = 37)
 Surgical 30
 Conservative 0
 Both 2
 Unclear 5
Exercise intervention typeb(N = 37)
 Resistance exercise 14
 Dose of sessions with health professional 13
 Weight bearing exercise 5
 Treadmill training, timing of weight bearing, aerobic exercise 2
Setting of intervention (N = 36)
 Inpatient 11
 Outpatient 6
 Community 13
 Combination 6
Subjective mobility outcomes (N = 22)
 Hip fracture studies (N = 21):
  Harris Hip Scorec, Physical Performance and Mobility Examination, participant self-reported/rated mobility (not a mobility outcome questionnaire/scale) 3
  Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, Yale Physical Activity Scale, Clinician assessment of gait, Functional Ambulatory Categories 2
  Functional Status Questionnaire, Hip Rating Questionnaire, Nursing Home Life-Space Diameter, Disability Rating Index, Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care, WOMAC, Assistance required for bed transfers, Modified Functional Status Index, Modified Grimby Scale, Harvard Alumni Physical Activity Index, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, Part C of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, International Physical Activity Questionnaire long-from, Assessment of gait using 5 items from the gait component of the Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment 1
 Ankle fracture studies (N = 1):
 Lower Extremity Functional scale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire short-form 1
Objective mobility outcomes (N = 29)
 Hip fracture studies (N = 28):
  Timed Up and Go Test 11
  Gait speed 10
  6 min walk test 7
  Timed 6 m walk test 3
  Modified Physical Performance Test, Short Physical Performance Battery, 10 m walk test, cadence during timed 6 m walk test, number of steps during timed 6 m walk test, step length during timed 6 m walk test, timed stair climbing 2
  2 min walk test, 10 min walk test, 10 min walk test with obstacles, 10 min walk test with cognitive task, daily walking distance, distance walked during treatment, Lower Extremity Gain Scale, 48 h step count, timed transfer lying to sitting, 50 ft walk test, time to walk 10 ft and turn back 1
 Ankle Fracture studies (N = 1):
  Gait speed 1
Mixed subjective and objective mobility outcomes (N = 4)
 Hip fracture studies (N = 4):
 Modified Iowa Level of Assistance Scale, Elderly Mobility Scale 2
 Ankle Fracture studies (N = 0)
Duration of follow-up (longest time frame in each study) (N = 34)
 0–6 weeks 7
 >  6–16 weeks 9
 >  16 weeks 18
Total median (IQR) (N = 33) 6 (2.5 to 12) months
  1. aThree participants (1 in the control group, 2 in the intervention group) did not have a hip fracture but had elective hip surgery. These participants had a recent injurious fall
  2. b Mangione et al. 2005 is in 2 categories: Resistance exercise’ and ‘Aerobic exercise’
  3. cThe Harris Hip score is not categorised as a Mixed mobility outcome as the objective component of this outcome does not assess mobility