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Table 1 Studies Exclusion

From: Prevalence and incidence of low back pain among runners: a systematic review

First Author, Year Journal, Title Reasons For Exclusion
Aggrawal ND, 1979 Br J Sports Med
A Study of changes in the spine in weight-lifters and other athletes
Data for prevalence, incidence or risk factors running related low back injuries are not reported
This study evaluates the spine complaints in weight-lifters and track and field athletes
Bertelsen ML, 2017 [24] Scand J Med Sci Sports
A framework for the etiology of running-related injuries
Study design is not included
Brill PA, 1995 Sports Med
The influence of running patterns on running
injuries.
Study design is not included
Buist I, 2010 Am J Sports Med
Predictors of running-related injuries in novice runners enrolled in
a systematic training program: a prospective cohort study
Primary and secondary outcomes are not evaluated
Burrows M, 2003 Br J Sports Med
Physiological factors associated with low bone mineral density in female endurance runners
Primary and secondary outcomes are not evaluated
This study analyzes the BMD (bone mass index) of several body segments after physical exercises
Cai C, 2015 J Orthop Sports Phys Ther
Low Back and Lower Limb Muscle Performance in Male and Female Recreational Runners with Chronic Low Back Pain
Primary and secondary outcomes not evaluated
This study evaluates some physical test such as muscular strength and length
Cole AJ, 1995 J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil
Spine injuries in runners: A functional approach
Data for prevalence, incidence or risk factors running related low back injuries are not reported
Study design is not relevant
Damsted C, 2019 J Orthop Sports Phys Ther
Preparing for half-marathon: The association between changes in weekly running distance and running-related injuries – does it matter how the running is scheduled?
Primary and secondary outcomes are not evaluated.
This study evaluates only running-related injuries localized in the lower limb
Fokkema T, 2018 J Sci Med Sport
Prognosis and
prognostic factors of running-related injuries in novice runners: a
prospective cohort study
Data for prevalence, incidence or risk factors running related low back injuries are not reported
Franke TPC, 2019 [5] J Orthop Sports Phys Ther
Running Themselves Into the Ground? Incidence, Prevalence, and Impact of Injury and Illness in Runners Preparing for a Half or Full Marathon
Data for prevalence, incidence or risk factors running related low back injuries are not reported
This study grouped the data for head, spine and trunk
Fredericson M, 2007 Sports Med
Epidemiology and aetiology of marathon running injuries
Study design is not included
Garbutt G, 1990 [60] Med Sci Sports Exerc
Running speed and spinal shrinkage in runners with and without low back pain
Data for prevalence, incidence or risk factors running related low back injuries are not reported
This study analyzes the spinal shrinkage in runners. The authors consider LBP as an independent of the shrinkage induced by running
Hamill J, 2009 Res Sports Med
Lower extremity joint stiffness in runners with low back pain
Primary and secondary outcomes are not evaluated.
This study evaluates the joint stiffness of hip, knee and ankle in runners with current LBP, resolved LBP and controls
Hespanhol Junior LC, 2016 Scand J Med Sci Sports
Health and economic burden of running-related injuries in runners training for an event: a prospective cohort study
Data for prevalence, incidence or risk factors running related low back injuries are not reported
Jacobs S, 1986 Am J Sports Med
Injuries to runners: a study of entrants to a
10,000-m race.
Primary and secondary outcomes are not evaluated
Kemler E, 2018 [12] Phys Sportsmed
The relationship between the use of running applications and running-related injuries
Data for prevalence, incidence or risk factors running related low back injuries are not reported
Kluitenberg B, 2013 BMC Public Health
The NLstart2run study: health effects of a running promotion program in novice runners, design of a prospective cohort study
Study design is not included
Kluitenberg B, 2016 J Sci Med Sport
The NLstart2run study: training-related factors associated with running-related injuries in novice runners
Primary and secondary outcomes are not evaluated.
This study analyzes the risk factors for running-related injury without referring to specific anatomical sites for each participant
Lee SP, 2018 Phys Ther Sport
Adaptations of lumbar biomechanics after four weeks of running training with minimalist footwear and technique guidance: Implications for running-related lower back pain
Primary and secondary outcomes are not evaluated
The authors report only that incorporating minimalist footwear and technique coaching into a
runners’ training may induce changes in lumbar biomechanics associated with reduced risk of running related LBP, without any statistical analysis
Lewis G, 2000 ISMJThe etiology and clinical features of low back pain in distance runners: a review Study design is not relevant
Linton L, 2018 J Sci Med Sport
Running with injury: a study of UK novice and
recreational runners and factors associated with running related injury
Data for prevalence, incidence or risk factors running related low back injuries are not reported
Lopes AD, 2011 J Physiother
Musculoskeletal pain is
prevalent among recreational runners who are about to compete: an observational study of 1049 runners
Data for prevalence, incidence or risk factors running related low back injuries are not reported
This study evaluated the general spine complaints
Nielsen RO, 2019 BMJ Open
The Garmin-RUNSAFE Running Health Study on the aetiology of runningrelated injuries: rationale and design of an 18-month prospective cohort study including runners worldwide
Study design is not included
Nielsen RO, 2013 [61] Int J Phys Ther
Classifying running-related injuries based upon etiology,
with emphasis on volume and pace
Study design is not included
Noormohammadpour P, 2015 Eur Spine J
Low back pain status of female university students in relation to different sport activities
Data for prevalence, incidence or risk factors running related low back injuries are not reported
This study evaluates the LBP status in 9 sports, but not among runner
Ogon M, 1999 Foot Ankle Int
Does arch height affect impact loading at the lower back level in running?
Primary and secondary outcomes are not evaluated
Oliveira RR, 2017 Int J Sports Phys Ther
There are no biomechanical differences between runners classified by the functional movement screen
Primary and secondary outcomes are not evaluated
This study evaluates the timing of TrA (transversus abdominis muscle) activation and the sit and reach test such as possible factors for LBP development
Preece SJ, 2016 Gait Posture
How do elite endurance runners alter movements of the spine and pelvis as running speed increases?
Primary and secondary outcomes are not evaluated
This study analyzes some cinematics parameters of the spine and pelvis without any consideration for LBP
Sado N, 2017 Sports Biomech
The three-dimensional kinetic behaviour of the pelvic rotation in maximal sprint running
Primary and secondary outcomes are not evaluated
This study analyzes the lumbosacral cinematic to improve the sprint performance in running
Schafer WE, 1985 Stress Health
Life changes, stress, injury and illness in adult runners
Data for prevalence, incidence or risk factors running related low back injuries are not reported
Scheer BV, 2011 [62] Clin J Sport Med
Al Andalus Ultra Trail: an observation of medical interventions during a 219-km, 5-day ultramarathon stage race
Data for prevalence, incidence or risk factors running related low back injuries are not reported
Seay JF, 2014 Eur J Sport Sci
Trunk bend and twist coordination is affected by low back pain status during running
Data for prevalence, incidence or risk factors running related low back injuries are not reported
This study analyzes the differences in trunk sagittal kinematics between 3 groups of runners, with current LBP, resolved LBP or controls
Smits DW, 2018 Res Sports Med
Validity of injury self-reports by novice runners: comparison with reports by sports medicine physicians
Data for prevalence, incidence or risk factors running related low back injuries are not reported
This study examines the criterion validity of self-reported running related injuries, compared to an injury consultation by a sport medicine physician
Sugisaki N, 2011 Int J Sport Health Sci
The Relationship between 30-m Sprint Running Time and Muscle Cross-sectional Areas of the Psoas Major and Lower Limb Muscles in Male College Short and Middle Distance Runners
Primary and secondary outcomes are not evaluated
Tam N, 2018 J Sports Sci
Bone health in elite Kenyan runners
Primary and secondary outcomes are not evaluated
Tauton JE, 2002 Br J Sports Med
A retrospective case-control analysis of 2002 running injuries
Data for prevalence, incidence or risk factors running related low back injuries are not reported
This study evaluates the running-related injury in athletes of different sports such as cycling, swimming, weight-lifting, etc. who referred to had an injury during running activity
Villavicencio AT, 2006 Neurosurg Focus
Back and neck pain in triathletes
Data for prevalence, incidence or risk factors running related low back injuries are not reported
The study population is triathlon athletes
Wen DY, 2007 Curr Sports Med Rep
Risk Factors for Overuse Injuries
in Runners
Study design is not included
Winter SC, 2018 J Phy Fit Treatment & Sports
Centre of Mass Acceleration-Derived Variables Detects Differences between Runners of Different Abilities and Fatigue-Related Changes during a Long Distance Over ground Run
Primary and secondary outcomes are not evaluated.
This study evaluates the differences in running movements using a wireless accelerometers
Winter SC, 2019 Res Sports Med
Overuse injuries in runners of different abilities-a one-year prospective study.
Data for prevalence, incidence or risk factors running related low back injuries are not reported
This study provides the total amount of injuries for the groups of running level. The single anatomical site of injury for each runner was not included