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Table 3 Hierarchical linear model results predicting chiropractic visit frequency for patients with chronic spinal pain

From: Predictors of visit frequency for patients using ongoing chiropractic care for chronic low back and chronic neck pain; analysis of observational data

 Chronic Low Back Pain (n = 852)p-values for coefficients in blockChronic Neck Pain (n = 705)p-values for coefficients in block
Enabling factors - p-values for block10.032 0.986 
Some insurance coverage for chiropractic – Reference = No coverage0.44.0080.14.408
Unknown insurance coverage0.06.845−0.15.689
Need factors – pain characteristics - p-values for block1<.001 <.001 
Rating of pain past 7 days (0–10), mean (SD)0.06.2380.00.972
Oswestry or Neck Disability Index score (0–100), mean (SD)0.02.0240.03<.001
Have both CLBP and CNP0.09.5080.15.309
Years of pain - Reference = < 1 year
 1 year to less than 2 years0.38.2310.36.307
 2 years to less than 5 years−0.26.338− 0.07.787
 5 years to less than 10 years− 0.29.259− 0.11.674
 10+ years−0.39.088−0.03.894
 Unknown−0.10.839−0.01.986
Need factors – lifestyle and point in care - p-values for block1<.001 <.001 
Heavy labor - Reference = No heavy labor
 Non-workday heavy labor: > 0% but < 20%0.41.055−0.28.244
 Workday heavy labor: > 0% but < 20%0.47.010−0.06.732
 Non-workday heavy labor: > 20%0.23.533−0.02.971
 Workday heavy labor: > 20%0.22.3500.19.458
 Heavy labor: missing0.43.1040.30.282
New patient (< 30 days)0.63.0060.69.005
Unknown time with this chiropractor0.32.0820.45.019
Ended care during study period−1.21<.001−1.57<.001
Perceived need factors – goals for treatment - p-values for block10.636 0.237 
Perceived need factors – pain beliefs - p-values for block10.063 0.766 
Perceived need factors – other psychological factors - p-values for block10.295 0.100 
Predisposing factors - p-values for block10.048 0.171 
Age in years0.01.1040.01.111
Female−0.37.013−0.12.525
Education: At least a 4-year degree0.04.805−0.15.307
Chiropractor practice characteristics - p-values for block1<.001 <.001 
Average number of patients treated per day0.03<.0010.04<.001
Percentage of patients on preventive/maintenance0.01.2590.01.020
Years in practice - Reference = 5 to 10 years
 In practice > 10 to 20 years−0.50.072−0.16.567
 In practice > 20 to 30 years−0.72.014−1.01.001
 In practice > 30 years0.24.487−0.13.704
Clinic location is urban (> 50,000 population)−0.20.318−0.18.387
Average number of physical modalities used−0.12.067−0.04.624
College from which chiropractor graduated - p-value for block10.130 0.060 
State/Region - p-value for block10.014 0.072 
State/Region - Reference = California
 Florida−0.67.096−0.66.109
 Minnesota−0.57.625−1.31.205
 New York−1.49.001−1.20.010
 Oregon0.48.5580.20.802
 Texas−0.30.574−0.05.927
  1. 1P-value for the likelihood-ratio test of the incremental explanatory power of each block of variables added to a model containing all previous blocks