Skip to main content

Table 2 Means and frequencies of each predictor variable in each sample in order of model entry

From: Predictors of visit frequency for patients using ongoing chiropractic care for chronic low back and chronic neck pain; analysis of observational data

All figures are n (%) unless otherwise indicatedChronic Low Back Pain (n = 852)Chronic Neck Pain (n = 705)p-value for difference between groups
Mean (SD) # chiropractic visits/month2.3 (2.2)2.3 (2.0).900
Enabling factors
 Some insurance coverage for chiropractic590 (69.2%)475 (67.4%).520
 Unknown insurance coverage44 (5.2%)28 (4.0%) 
Need factors – pain characteristics
 Rating of pain past 7 days (0–10), mean (SD)3.7 (2.1)4.0 (2.1).004
 Oswestry or Neck Disability Index score (0–100), mean (SD)20.5 (12.5)22.6 (12.5).001
 Have both CLBP and CNP444 (52.1%)428 (60.7%).001
Years of pain  .278
 Less than 1 year107 (12.6%)80 (11.3%) 
 1 year to less than 2 years58 (6.8%)38 (5.4%) 
 2 years to less than 5 years115 (13.5%)112 (15.9%) 
 5 years to less than 10 years134 (15.7%)133 (18.9%) 
 10+ years418 (49.1%)324 (46.0%) 
 Unknown20 (2.3%)18 (2.6%) 
Need factors – lifestyle and point in care
 No heavy labor401 (47.1%)375 (53.2%).063
 Non-workday heavy labor: > 0% but < 20%108 (12.7%)68 (9.6%) 
  Workday heavy labor: > 0% but < 20%163 (19.1%)140 (19.9%) 
 Non-workday heavy labor: > 20%30 (3.5%)15 (2.1%) 
 Workday heavy labor: > 20%87 (10.2%)58 (8.2%) 
 Heavy labor: missing63 (7.4%)49 (7.0%) 
 New patient (< 30 days)94 (11.0%)73 (10.4%).763
 Unknown time with this chiropractor145 (17.0%)113 (16.0%) 
 Ended care during study period57 (6.7%)29 (4.1%)0.027
Perceived need factors – goals for treatment  .001
 Goal: prevent pain getting worse120 (14.1%)84 (11.9%) 
 Goal: prevent pain coming back; prevent reinjury178 (20.9%)107 (15.2%) 
 Goal: ease or make pain go away temporarily268 (31.5%)290 (41.1%) 
 Goal: make pain go away permanently276 (32.4%)218 (30.9%) 
 Goal: other or missing10 (1.2%)6 (0.9%) 
Perceived need factors – pain beliefs
 Believe their pain is chronic572 (67.1%)474 (67.2%).967
 What pain would be if didn’t see chiropractor 0–10, mean (SD)6.8 (2.3)6.9 (2.2).179
 Chronic pain will never go away: agree/strongly agree235 (27.6%)198 (28.1%)<.001
 Important to understand causes of pain: agree/strongly agree801 (94.0%)669 (94.9%).452
 Unsafe to be physically active: agree/strongly agree53 (6.2%)25 (3.5%).016
Perceived need factors – other psychological influences
 Pain management self-efficacy (0–10), mean (SD)7.5 (1.8)7.7 (1.7).061
 Expect chiropractic very-extremely successful611 (71.7%)542 (76.9%).021
 Expect a lot to quite a bit of improvement538 (63.1%)447 (63.4%).916
 Worry about pain: mod to all the time152 (17.8%)116 (16.5%).471
 Has depression according to PROMIS items215 (25.2%)188 (26.7%).521
 Catastrophizing (0–12 scale), mean (SD)2.3 (2.3)2.2 (2.3).389
Predisposing factors
 Age in years48.5 (14.9)45.8 (13.2)<.001
 Female558 (65.5%)579 (82.1%)<.001
 Education: At least a 4-year degree462 (54.2%)413 (58.6%).085
Chiropractor practice characteristics
 Average number of patients treated per day25.3 (12.8)25.6 (12.3).612
 Percentage of patients on preventive/maintenance23.7 (17.3)24.1 (17.4).660
 In practice 5 to 10 years100 (11.7%)84 (11.9%).598
 In practice > 10 to 20 years268 (31.5%)222 (31.5%) 
 In practice > 20 to 30 years258 (30.3%)231 (32.8%) 
 In practice > 30 years226 (26.5%)168 (23.8%) 
 Clinic location is urban (> 50,000 population)541 (63.5%)477 (67.7%).086
 Average number of physical modalities used3.3 (1.4)3.2 (1.4).849
College from which chiropractor graduated  .344
 Life College79 (9.3%)63 (8.9%) 
 National College of Chiropractic [fix order later]46 (5.4%)42 (6.0%) 
 Los Angeles College of Chiropractic28 (3.3%)29 (4.1%) 
 New York Chiropractic College90 (10.6%)54 (7.7%) 
 Northwestern Chiropractic College212 (24.9%)199 (28.2%) 
 Palmer Chiropractic College106 (12.4%)94 (13.3%) 
 Parker Chiropractic College73 (8.6%)45 (6.4%) 
 Texas Chiropractic College81 (9.5%)58 (8.2%) 
 University of Western States106 (12.4%)97 (13.8%) 
 Other31 (3.6%)24 (3.4%) 
State/Region  .038
 California130 (15.3%)125 (17.7%) 
 Florida71 (8.3%)56 (7.9%) 
 Minnesota208 (24.4%)199 (28.2%) 
 New York155 (18.2%)99 (14.0%) 
 Oregon117 (13.7%)111 (15.7%) 
 Texas171 (20.1%)115 (16.3%)