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Table 1 Baseline demographic, clinical and radiographic data

From: Operative versus nonoperative treatment in children with painful rigid flatfoot and talocalcaneal coalition

Baseline variableGroup A (nonoperative)Group B (operative)p-value
 N° of children (feet)34 (47)21 (34).07
 Male/female ratio23/1112/9.35
 Age (years) [mean ± SD (range)]11.6 ± 2.1 (9–17)12.2 ± 1.2 (10–15).07
 AOFAS-AHS pain [mean ± SD (range)]28 ± 4 (20–40)28 ± 5 (20–30).71
 AOFAS-AHS function [mean ± SD (range)]42 ± 3 (35–47)42 ± 4 (27–47).76
 AOFAS-AHS alignment [mean ± SD (range)]1 ± 2 (0–10)1 ± 2 (0–5).29
 AOFAS-AHS tot [mean ± SD (range)]70 ± 7 (55–87)70 ± 7 (47–82).47
Radiographic dataGroup A (nonoperative)Group B (operative)p-value
 Calcaneal Pitch (°) [mean ± SD (range)]13.7 ± 3.9 (9–20)14.7 ± 3.1(11–21).48
 Meary’s angle (°) [mean ± SD (range)]12.6 ± 4.3 (8–20)13.3 ± 4.7 (9–21).82
 Heel valgus (°) [mean ± SD (range)]23.7 ± 8.8 (6.6–46.8)26.4 ± 7.7 (12.8–38.5).37
 JSN (mm) [mean ± SD (range)]2.8 ± 1.0 (0.6–4.8)2.7 ± 0.9 (1.7–4.8).28
 Rozansky classificationI: 13I: 18.19
II: 9II: 4 
III: 12III: 7 
IV: 8IV: 4 
V: 5V: 1