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Table 3 Assessment of risk factors for delirium. Patient characteristics were stratified by post-operative delirium status. Significant difference was observed for age, use of sedative-hypnotics, pre-operative Hb, post-operative day 1 Hb, pre-operative Ht, post-operative day 1 Ht, and post-operative day 3 BUN

From: Pre-operative hemoglobin level and use of sedative-hypnotics are independent risk factors for post-operative delirium following total knee arthroplasty

  Delirium (n = 11) No delirium (n = 159) p-Value
Age (years) 79.5 ± 6.9 73.0 ± 9.0 0.021*
Sex (male / female) 2/9 30/129 0.955
Type of surgery (unilateral / bilateral TKA) 4/7 88/71 0.221
History of hypertension (n) (%) 9 (81.8%) 86 (54.1%) 0.061
History of diabetes (n) (%) 2 (18.2%) 25 (15.7%) 0.832
History of ischemic heart disease (n) (%) 0 (0%) 5 (3.1%) 0.410
Use of sedative-hypnotics (n) (%) 5 (45.5%) 27 (17.0%) 0.036*
Estimated blood loss (ml) 543 ±169 741 ±594 0.273
Pre-operative levels of Hb (g/dl) 11.6 ±1.7 13.2 ±1.4 <0.001*
Post-operative day 1 Hb (g/dl) 9.9 ±1.6 11.0 ±1.4 0.028*
Post-operative day 3 Hb (g/dl) 8.9 ±1.5 10.4 ±7.7 0.519
Pre-operative levels of Ht (%) 34.8 ±4.7 39.7 ±3.9 <0.001*
Post-operative day 1 Ht (%) 30.4 ±4.7 33.2 ±4.2 0.034*
Post-operative day 3 Ht (%) 26.9 ±4.6 29.5 ±4.8 0.077
Post-operative day 1 TP (g/dl) 5.89 ±0.3 5.68 ±0.5 0.184
Post-operative day 3 TP (g/dl) 5.49 ±0.34 5.54 ±0.57 0.775
Post-operative day 1 Alb (g/dl) 3.28 ±0.17 3.21 ±0.30 0.443
Post-operative day 3 Alb (g/dl) 2.76 ±0.29 2.80 ±0.36 0.766
Post-operative day 1 BUN (mg/dl) 14.9 ±6.4 14.2 ±7.2 0.763
Post-operative day 3 BUN (mg/dl) 20.5 ±8.3 14.2 ±7.3 0.008*
Post-operative day 1 Cr (mg/dl) 0.80 ±0.29 0.80 ±1.33 0.987
Post-operative day 3 Cr (mg/dl) 0.89 ±0.28 0.80 ±1.40 0.835
Post-operative day 1 Na (mmol/l) 138.7 ±3.4 139.0 ±2.4 0.740
Post-operative day 3 Na (mmol/l) 138.6 ±2.8 140.0 ±3.0 0.147
Post-operative day 1 K (mmol/l) 4.15 ±0.59 4.27 ±3.40 0.908
Post-operative day 3 K (mmol/l) 3.88 ±0.39 3.90 ±0.41 0.868
Post-operative day 1 Cl (mmol/l) 105.6 ±3.2 105.5 ±2.6 0.966
Post-operative day 3 Cl (mmol/l) 105.3 ±3.0 105.9 ±3.2 0.623
Post-operative day 1 Ca (mg/dl) 8.65 ±0.64 8.36 ±0.36 0.307
Post-operative day 3 Ca (mg/dl) 8.90 ±0.41 8.39 ±0.15 0.281