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Table 3 Adjusted associations between individual-level and state-level variables with length of disability estimated by multivariable multilevel regression (model 5)

From: Why does the adverse effect of inappropriate MRI for LBP vary by geographic location? An exploratory analysis

VariableLength of disability days
Parameter estimate of associationS.E.Difference in the geometric mean of LOD95% CIp-value
Intercept3.3460.05528.425.4, 31.7<.001
 Malea   2.22
Age0.005< 0.0010.10.1, 0.2<.001
Tenure−0.0040.001−0.1− 0.2, − 0.1<.001
AWW/$1000.0130.0050.40.1, 0.6.004
 Mining0.4430.05315.811.5, 20.6<.001
 Construction0.1820.0485.72.6, 9.0<.001
 Transportation0.2470.0447.94.9, 11.2<.001
 Agriculture0.0810.0592.4−1.0, 6.2.167
 Manufacturing0.1170.0443.50.9, 6.4.008
 Wholesale trade0.0760.0452.2−0.4, 5.1.096
 Retail trade0.1180.0453.60.9, 6.5.009
 Services0.0910.0442.70.1, 5.5.038
 Public administration0.0680.0482.0− 0.7, 5.0.157
Injury severity
 More severe0.0850.0102.51.9, 3.2<.001
 Less severea     
Early Opioid/100 mg MEA0.0140.0020.40.3, 0.5<.001
eMRI scan
 Yes0.4020.0229.48.5, 10.2<.001
Lumbar spine surgery
 Yes0.7120.02229.527.1, 32.1<.001
Litigation status
 Yes1.1520.00961.459.8, 63.1<.001
Median household income ($)−0.0070.002−0.2−0.3, −0.1<.001
State physician density<−0.001< 0.0010.00.0,0.0.063
State Orthopedic surgeons density0.0420.0181.20.2, 2.3.021
MRI facility rate−0.1820.037−4.7−6.4, −2.9<.001
Wage replacement rate0.0040.0030.10.0, 0.3.116
Waiting Period0.0690.0072.01.6, 2.5<.001
Retroactive Period0.0060.0020.20.1, 0.3<.001
Treating provider choice
 Allowed0.3320.03411.28.5, 14.0<.001
 Not alloweda     
Treating provider change
 Allowed0.1140.0313.41.5, 5.5<.001
 Allowed once−0.1140.033−3.1−4.7, −1.4<.001
 Not alloweda     
State medical fee schedule
 Yes0.0980.0202.91.7, 4.2<.001
Unemployment rate0.0110.0060.30.0, 0.7.066
MRI (yes) X State Orthopedic surgeons density
MRI (No) X State Orthopedic surgeons densitya
0.0530.0141.50.7, 2.2<.001
MRI (yes) X Dr choice (yes)
MRI (yes) X Dr choice (no)a
0.0990.0302.71.1, 4.2.002
MRI (Yes) X male gender
MRI (Yes) X female gendera
−0.0470.019−1.4−2.6, −0.2.002
MRI (yes) X MRI facility density
MRI (no) X MRI facility densitya
−0.0580.023−1.7−3.1, −0.3.014
  1. S.E. Standard error of parameter estimate of association, CI Confidence intervals, LOD Length of disability, AWW Average weekly wage, eMRI Early magnetic resonance imaging, MEA Morphine equivalent amount
  2. aIndicator of reference group