Skip to main content

Table 2 Summary of review findings: predictors of mortality

From: Predictors of poor functional outcomes and mortality in patients with hip fracture: a systematic review

PredictorOutcomeFrequency of studies reporting associationStudies
Socio-economic Factors
AgeGreater mortality with increasing age20/20[48,49,50,51,52,53,54, 56, 59, 63, 65,66,67,68,69,70, 76, 79, 81, 93]
GenderMales have higher mortality15/15[49,50,51, 53, 56, 57, 59, 63, 66,67,68, 70, 81, 93, 96]
Institutional care homes residenceGreater mortality in institutional care homes4/4[49, 51, 53, 65]
Medical Factors
Co-morbidities• Greater mortality with multiple co-morbidities14/15[48, 50,51,52,53,54, 56, 59, 66, 68, 72, 79, 82, 88]
 • Greater mortality with less co-morbidities1/15[93]
American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA)• Greater mortality with higher ASA score
• ASA does not predict mortality
8/9
1/9
[49, 52, 62, 63, 68, 70, 72, 88]
[71]
Cognitive impairmentGreater mortality with cognitive impairment9/9[48, 49, 54, 65, 69, 70, 79, 93, 6]
Pre-fracture functional statusGreater mortality with poor pre-fracture functional status7/7[49, 65, 70, 78, 79, 83, 93]
Functional level at dischargeGreater mortality with poor functional status at discharge3/3[48, 70, 75]
Cardiac diseasesGreater mortality with cardiac diseases4/4[53, 57, 66, 81]
FrailtyGreater mortality with frailty2/2[52, 58]
CancerGreater mortality with cancer2/2[53, 76]
Renal failureGreater mortality with renal failure2/2[53, 57]
Cerebrovascular accidentGreater mortality with cerebrovascular accident2/2[53, 81]
DeliriumGreater mortality with delirium1/1[93]
Diabetes mellitusGreater mortality with diabetes mellitus1/1[67]
MalnutritionGreater mortality with malnutrition1/1[49]
Hemoglobin levelsGreater mortality with lower hemoglobin level1/1[95]
Surgical Factors
Delay in operation• Greater mortality with delay in surgery
• No difference in mortality based on time of day the surgery or delay in surgery
5/8
2/8
[59, 63, 72, 79, 81]
[60, 61]
 • Greater mortality with delay in surgery among patients with a Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) of 0 or 1 but improved survival for those with a CCI > = 3.1/8[82]
Non-operative managementGreater mortality with non-operative management2/2[54, 55]
Fracture typeGreater mortality with extra-capsular fractures3/3[51, 69, 70]
Perioperative fractureGreater mortality with perioperative fractures1/1[81]
Local Factors
Lower case-volume centersGreater mortality with lower case-volume centers2/2[51, 73]
Poor nurse staffingGreater mortality with poor nurse staffing1/1[73]
Inappropriate prescriptionGreater mortality with inappropriate medication prescribing1/1[56]