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Table 3 Shoulder motion monitoring for application in patients undergoing rehabilitation

From: Wearable systems for shoulder kinematics assessment: a systematic review

Reference, Year, Type of publicationSensors, BrandPlacement and wearabilityTarget shoulder parameters, PerformanceGold standardTask executedParticipantsAim
Cutti 2008, [37]
Full-Text
M-IMU (n = 4),
Xsens MT9B
Unilateral:
Thorax (flat portion of the sternum), Scapula (central third, aligned with the cranial edge of the scapular spine), humerus (central third, slightly posterior), FA (distal)
Double-sided tape, elastic cuff
Sh ROM
(HT and ST joint angles)
RMSE = 0.2°-3.2°
VICONExp 1: elb FLX-EXT, PR-SU
sh FLX-EXT, IER, sh EL-DE and P-R
Exp 2: tasks in Exp1 + sh IER (arm abducted 90°), sh AB-AD (frontal plane),
HTN (sagittal and frontal plane)
HS (n = 1, M)Develop a protocol to measure humerothoracic, scapulothoracic and elbow kinematics
Parel 2012, [65]
Full-Text
M-IMU (n = 3),
Xsens MTx
Unilateral:
thorax, scapula, humerus
Elastic cuff, adhesive
Sh ROM
(HT and ST joint angles)
Humerus FLX-EXT (sagittal plane) and AB-AD (scapular plane)HS (n = 20)
7F, 13 M
28.3 ± 5.5 Y
P (n = 20)
8F, 12 M
43.9 ± 19.9 Y
Assess the inta- and inter-operator agreement of ISEO protocol in measuring scapulohumeral rhythm
Daponte 2013a, [66]
Conference
M-IMU (n = 2), Zolertia Z1Unilateral:
UA, FA
Brace
Sh ROMSh AB-AD
Elb FLX
HS (n = 1)Discuss design and implementation of a home rehabilitation system
Daponte 2013b, [67]
Conference
M-IMU (n = 2), Zolertia Z1Unilateral:
UA, FA
Brace
Sh ROM,
Test1:
max gap =
6.5° (roll)
5.2° (pitch)
11.6° (yaw)
Test 1:
Tecno
Body MJS
Test 2: BTS
Test 1: shoulder IR, EL-DE and horizontal FLX-EXT
Test 2: elbow FLX-EXT (along sagittal and horizontal plane)
HS (n = 1, M)Validation of a home rehabilitation system
Pan 2013, [68]
Full-Text
Acc (n = 2),
LIS3LV02DQ
Acc built-in a Smartphone (n = 1)
Unilateral:
-acc: UA, thorax
-Smartphone: wrist
Strap, Armband
Sh ROM
(HT joint angles)
Touch ear
Use fingers to climb wall
Pendulum clockwise and counter clockwise
Active-assisted stretch fore and side, raises hand from back
HS (n = 10)
3 M, 7 F
20-25Y
P (n = 14)
5 M, 9 F
44–67 Y
Describe design and implementation of a shoulder joint home-based rehabilitation monitoring system
Thiemjarus 2013, [69]
Conference
Acc (n = 1),
Analog Device
(acc: ADXL330)
Magn (n = 1),
Honeywell
(magn: HMC5843)
Unilateral:
UA (proximal) or wrist, left or right
Strap
Sh ROM,
RMSE = 0.86°-5.05°
Sh FLX-EXT, AB-AD, horizontal AB-AD, IERHS, (n = 23)
20–55 Y
Evaluate the effect of sensor placement on the estimation accuracy of shoulder ROM
Rawashdeh 2015, [70]
Conference
M-IMU (n = 1),
InvenSense (gyr: ITG-3200)
Analog Device (acc: ADXL 345)
Honeywell (magn: HMC5883L)
Unilateral:
UA (lateral)
Strap
Sh ROM7 sh rehabilitation exercises
2 sports activities
HS (n = 11)Describe a detection and classification method of shoulder motion gestures that can be used to prevent shoulder injury
Álvarez 2016, [71]
Full-Text
M-IMU (n = 4),
Xsens MTx
Unilateral:
Back of the hand, FA (near wrist), UA (near elbow), back
Wristband, Velcro strap, elastic band
Sh ROM,
Lab test: mean error = 0.06° (FLX)
1.05° (lateral deviation)
Lab test:
robotic wrist
Test1: Mounting of a shock dumper system
Test2: holding a tablet for long periods
Test3: elbow FLX-EXT
Test1: Mechanical worker (n = 1)
Test2: worker of a commercial centre (n = 1)
Test3: patient (n = 1)
Demonstrate the feasibility of an IMU-based system to measure upper limb joint angles in occupational health
Lee 2016, [72]
Conference
Strain sensor (n = 2),
MWCNT, Hyosung: multi-walled carbon nanotubes, EcoFlex0030, Smooth-On: silicon rubber
Unilateral: Shoulder
Skin adhesive
Sh ROM, RMSE<10°OptiTrackSh FLX-EXT
Sh AB-AD
HS (n = 1)Validate sensors and calibration method estimating two shoulder joint angles
Tran e Vajerano 2016, [73]
Conference
M-IMU (n = 2),
Shimmer2r
Unilateral:
UA (distal, near elbow), FA (distal, near wrist)
Straps
Sh ROM
(HT joint angles)
Periodic arm movementsHS (n = 1)Validate an algorithm to predict the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and the future joint-angle values of the user
Rawashdeh 2016, [74]
Full-Text
M-IMU (n = 1),
InvenSense (gyr: ITG-3200)
Analog Device (acc: ADXL 345)
Honeywell (magn: HMC5883L)
Unilateral:
UA (central third)
Straps
Sh ROM
(HT motion)
Visual observation7 sh rehabilitation exercises, baseball throws, volley servesHS (n = 11)
25 ± 7 Y
Validate a detection and classification algorithm of upper limb movements
Wu 2016, [75]
Full-Text
M-IMU (n = 3), Bluetooth 3-Space Sensor, YEIUnilateral: FA (near wrist), UA (near elbow), thorax (shifted to the right)
Strap, bandage
Sh ROM
(HT joint angles)
12 gestures common in daily life: 3 static and 9 dynamicHS (n = 10)
9 M, 1 F
22–24 Y
Evaluate accuracy, recall and precision of a gesture recognition system
Burns 2018, [27]
Full-Text
Acc and gyr built-in a smartwatch (n = 1), Apple Watch (Series 2 &3)Unilateral:
Wrist
Wristband
Sh ROMPendulum
AB
Forward EL
IR
ER
Trapezius EXT
Upright row
HS (n = 20)
14 M, 6 F
19–56 Y
Evaluate performance of a commercial smartwatch to perform home shoulder physiotherapy monitoring
Esfahani e Nussbaum 2018, [11]
Full-Text
Textile sensors (printed) n = 11Bilateral:
Shoulder (n = 6), low back (n = 5)
Undershirt
Sh ROM, mean error = 9.6° for sh angle estimationM-IMU (Xsens MTw Awinda)Sh AB
Sh FLX-EXT
Sh IER
Left/right side bending
Trunk FLX-EXT
Trunk rot left/right
HS (n = 16),
10 M, 6 F
21.9 ± 3.3
Describe a smart undershirt and evaluate its accuracy in task classification and planar angle measures in the shoulder joints and low back
Ramkumar 2018, [76]
Full-Text
Acc,gyr and magn built-in a smartphone, Apple iPhoneUnilateral:
UA, FA
Armband
Sh ROM <5°gonAB (coronal plane)
forward FLX (sagittal plane)
IER (elbow fixed to the body flexed to 90°)
HS (n = 10)
5 M, 5 F
Mean 27 Y
Validate a motion-based machine learning software development kit for shoulder ROM
  1. acc accelerometer, gyr gyroscope, magn magnetometer, IMU Inertial Measurement Unit, M-IMU Magneto and Inertial Measurement Unit, UA Upper Arm, FA Forearm, ROM Range of motion, HT humerothoracic, ST scapulothoracic, Sh shoulder, elb elbow, FLX-EXT flexion-extension, AB-AD abduction-adduction, IER internal-external rotation, P-R protraction-retraction, RMSE root mean square error, HS Healthy subject, P patient, M male, F female, Y Years old