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Table 2 Risk factors

From: Wrist pain: a systematic review of prevalence and risk factors– what is the role of occupation and activity?

AuthorYearExtra informationRisk factors – non-modifiableRisk factors - modifiable
Celik et al [24]2018Minor vs slight vs major impact on work with right wrist pain 48.9% vs 33.3% vs 17.8% and with left wrist pain 48.9% vs 33.3% vs17.8% Nurses who often lifted/carried heavy materials felt significantly more pain in the wrist (37.8%;
OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.05–0.49; P = .003)
Chang et al [26]1995No increased risk of wrist pain with increased ulnar variance 24.6% of the 171 painful wrists had abnormal growth plate morphology compared to 19 (10.5%) of the 181 asymptomatic wrists (p < 0.005 X2 test, RR – 2.3)
Das et al [17]2014  Higher risk of wrist pain in brick field workers (85%) versus office workers (3%) (p < 0.001, X2 test)
Davatchi et al [15]2008 Wrist pain more common in women 14.7% (CI 13.6–15.8) than in men 5.6 (4.9–6.3) 
DiFiori et al [13]2002Wrist pain was dorsal (56%), palmar (22%), radial (7%) and ulnar (7%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed this age range to be significantly associated with wrist pain, independent of training intensity, age of initiation of training, years of training, gender, height, and weight (p = 0.03). The 1-year changes in height and training intensity were not associated with wrist pain (p = 0.15 and p = 0.2, respectively).Wrist pain was significantly more common in the older and taller groups. Pain free group mean age was 9.6 versus 11.3 in the painful group, p = 0.01. Pain free group mean height was 131.6 versus 139.6 in the painful group, p = 0.04). Of those between 10 and 14 years of age at 1 year, 73% had wrist pain at the study onset and at 1 year, compared with 29% of those who were either less than 10 or more than 14 years of age.
(p = 0.004).
 
DiFiori et al [12]2002By using multivariate regression analysis, we found that training hours per week (P = 0.03) and wrist pain (P = 0.02) were independently associated with radiograph findings of grade 2 or 3. Sixty-seven percent of the gymnasts (22 of the 33) with wrist pain had findings of grade 2 or 3, compared with 31% (8 of 26) of those without wrist pain (P = 0.008).Age was the only independent risk factor for wrist pain after adjusting for confounders using multivariate regression modelling.
Ulnar variance was not associated with wrist pain or radiographic injury of the distal radial physis
Wrist pain prevalence was associated with the radiographic grading of the distal radial physis (P = 0.007).
DiFiori et al [14]1996Wrist pain was dorsal (61.5%), palmar (7.7%), radial (6.2%) and ulnar (12.3%).Two non-modifiable factors were independently associated with wrist pain (age > 10 years, p = 0.018;; age > 14 years, p = 0.016).ars (P = 0.016),One modifiable factor was independently associated with wrist pain (training intensity, p = 0.036).
Gangopadhyay et al [18]2007  Higher rate of wrist pain in brass metal workers (62%) versus office workers (4%) (p < 0.001 Chi squared test)
Harutunian et al [19]2011Of 27.1% with wrist pain, 20.3% were classified as mild, 4.1% moderate and 2.7% severeWrist pain was more common in females (p < 0.05)Wrist pain was more common in those specialising in oral surgery (p < 0.05).
Hawkes et al [43]2013The majority of injuries (67%) occurred in
the leading wrist at the most common location, the ulnar side of the wrist (35%). 87% of all ulnar-sided and 100% of radial-sided problems were in the
leading wrist.
N/A 
Hou et al [44]2006Total of 3.4% had a limitation of movement due to the wrist pain reported. Wrist pain increased risk of sick leave OR 2.96 (95% CI 2.06–4.20) adjusted OR 2.36 (95% CI 1.60–3.42).N/A 
Jonasson et al [19]2011Note inconsistency between figures in text and tables.. Significant associations noted between presence of wrist pain versus thoracic spine pain p = 0.0188 OR 17.60 (95% CI 1.73–178.76) and wrists versus hips p = 0.0437 OR 12.00 (95% CI 1.63–88.29). Also significant associations noted over last year of symptoms related to elbows versus wrists p = 0.0026 OR 16.50 (95% CI2.51–108.64) and wrists versus thoracic spine p = 0.0508 OR 6.56 (95% CI1.17–36.84).Higher rate of wrist pain in athletes versus staff
Kihlberget al [11]2007 Higher risk of wrist pain with age (OR 1.4 (95% CI 1.1–1.7)).Higher risk of wrist pain with high frequency impact tool use (OR 1.5 (95% CI 1.0–2.3)).
Kirby et al [20]2001  Higher rate of wrist pain in gymnasts (33%) versus non gymnasts (2%)
Kuwabara et al [21]2011  Higher rate of wrist pain in endoscopists versus non endoscopists
MacDonald et al [46]201441.9% incidence of wrist pain reported whilst carrying out echocardiogramsN/A 
McCue et al [47]2004Of those reporting wrist pain, 51%
indicated it lasted for hours, 29% indicated it lasted for days, 6% indicated it lasted for weeks, and 4% indicated it lasted all year.
 Chi-square tests revealed significant differences in wrist pain prevalence between the overhead and the sidearm styles (32% vs 49%, P = 0.01), between the overhead and the elliptical styles (32% vs 58%, P = 0.03), between the sidearm and the multiple styles (49% vs 20%, P = 0.05), and between the elliptical and the multiple styles (59% vs 20%, P = 0.03).
Menzel et al [48]2004The frequency of wrist discomfort was predicted by number of highest risk
tasks per hour and number of patients ≥212 pounds .
N/A 
Punnett et al [22]1985  Wrist pain more common in garment workers versus hospital employees RR 3.9 p = 0.005 (95% CI 1.4–10.9). Specific types of garment workers were extremely likely to experience wrist pain (Finishers, RR 8.5)
Saxena et al [51]2014 There was no significant association between wrist pain and age.There was no significant association between wrist pain and use of assistant, use of fitness regime and breaks.
Sokas et al [23]1989  Wrist pain was significantly more common in sewing machine operators than controls (p = 0.00001).
Woldendorp et al [56]2018  There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of wrist pain within the last 3 months when comparing mono-instrumentalists with multi-instrumentalists (p = 0.831 right wrist, p = 0.845 left wrist)
Yu et al [25]2013  Wrist pain was more common in men and women with high job strain (psychological demands) (men OR 1.4 (95%CI 1.02–1.91) and women OR 2.20 (95%CI 1.31–3.69)) and high job strain (physical demands) (men OR 1.37 (95%CI 1.05–1.80) and women OR 1.56 (95%CI 1.02–2.40)). Wrist pain was more common in men and women with a effort reward imbalance (ERI) (men OR 1.29 (95% CI 1.02–1.23) and women OR 1.56 (95% CI 1.00–2.42). Wrist pain was more common in women in relation to job control OR 1.37 (95% CI 1.07–1.75). Wrist pain was more common in men related to effort OR 1.25 (95% CI 1.05–1.47).
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