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Table 7 Items used to assess the quality of the included studies

From: Psychosocial areas of worklife and chronic low back pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Section In a well conducted study...
A. Study objective / purpose (1) The study addresses an appropriate and clearly stated question.
B. Study design/ population (2) The population is selected from a total population that is comparable in all aspects other than the factor under investigation (Positive if the main characteristics of the study population are described; i.e., sampling frame and distribution of the population by age and sex).
C. Exposure assessment (3) The study assesses and reports all relevant exposures.
(4) The study assesses the exposure(s) (psychosocial factors) with valid and reliable instruments.
D. Outcome assessment (5) The outcomes are clearly defined.
(6) The outcome is assessed with reliable and valid instruments.
(7) The main potential confounders are identified and taken into account in the study design and data analysis (e.g., individual factors, other psychosocial factors, physical factors).
E. Analysis and data presentation (8) Effect sizes and their confidence intervals are reported (or can be calculated from other data reported).
  1. Each item was coded as 1 = ‘positive’ or 0 = ‘negative or unclear’. A total sum score was calculated indicating study quality