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Table 3 Participant characteristics (N = 233)

From: Predictors of substantial improvement in physical function six months after lumbar surgery: is early post-operative walking important? A prospective cohort study

  N (%)
Age
 < 65 119 (51%)
 ≥ 65 114 (49%)
Sex
 Male 118 (51%)
 Female 115 (49%)
Smoking Status
 Non-smoker 214 (92%)
 Smoker 18 (8%)
 Incomplete data 1 (0.4%)
Obesity
 BMI < 30 154 (66%)
 BMI ≥30 73 (31%)
 Incomplete data 6 (3%)
Diabetic
 No 207 (89%)
 Yes 25 (11%)
 Incomplete data 1 (0.4%)
Depression
 No (PHQ-9 < 10) 130 (56%)
 Yes (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) 98 (42%)
 Incomplete data 5 (2%)
Anxiety
 No (GAD-7 < 10) 159 (68%)
 Yes (GAD-7 ≥ 10) 69 (30%)
 Incomplete data 5 (2%)
Pre-operative pain duration
 < 12 months 106 (45%)
 ≥ 12 months 115 (49%)
 Incomplete data 12 (5%)
Neurological deficit (self-report)
 No 17 (7%)
 Yes 214 (92%)
 Incomplete data 2 (1%)
Pre-operative activity (IPAQ-SF)
 Low 130 (56%)
 Moderate 64 (27%)
 High 29 (12%)
 Incomplete data 10 (4%)
Pre-operative mobility (ODQ Section 4)
 Un-restricted (< 3) 113 (48%)
 Restricted (≥3)a 120 (52%)
Pre-operative function (ODQ category)
 0–20% 15 (6%)
 21–40% 93 (40%)
 41–60% 85 (36%)
 61–80% 37 (16%)
 81–100% 2 (1%)
 Incomplete data 1 (0.4%)
Surgical procedure
 Decompression 63 (27%)
 Discectomy 96 (41%)
 Fusion 74 (32%)
Number of vertebral levels
 Single 175 (75%)
 Multiple 58 (25%)
  1. BMI Body mass index, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire 9; GAD-7, Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7-item scale; IPAQ-SF, International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form; ODQ, Oswestry Disability Questionnaire; aRestricted mobility: ODQ Section 4, score of ≥3 (unable to walk more than 500 m, or requires a stick, crutches or other support)