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Table 6 Outcome table for pain

From: Effects of eccentric exercise in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Number of participants Withdrawals/dropouts Intervention
Eccentric exercise
(painful eccentric exercise)
Control
Other exercise types
(non-painful eccentric exercise)
Comments
Bateman et al. (2014) [38] I: 4
C1: 3 (concentric group)
C2:4 (no exercise)
I: 1
C1: 0
C2: 1
VAS
Baseline: 53.0 (SD 14.2)
Post-treatment (8 weeks): 43.5 (SD 26.5)
Δ −9.5
VAS
Baseline: 42.3 (SD 6.9)
Post-treatment (8 weeks): 51.7 (SD 17.6)
Δ 9.4
Between-group difference reported for intervention and concentric exercise group (C1). Second control group (C2) not reported because no intervention was given.
Visual analog scale, 0–100 mm, where 100 indicates worst possible pain.
Between-group difference in change:
Δ 18.9; in favour of eccentric exercise (ns)
Blume et al. (2015) [35] I: 18
C: 20
I: 0
C: 4
NPRS
Baseline: 2.0 (SD 1.8)
Post-treatment (8 weeks): 1.0 (SD 1.3)
Δ −1.0
NPRS
Baseline: 2.1 (SD 1.6)
Post-treatment (8 weeks): 1.5 (SD 2.2)
Δ −0.6
Numerical Pain Rating Scale. Range 0–10, where 10 indicates worst pain.
Data for 8 weeks were provided via e-mail.
Between-group difference in change:
Δ 0.4; in favour of eccentric exercise (ns)
Chaconas et al. (2017) [34] I: 25
C: 21
I: 0
C: 2
NPRS
Best Pain:
Baseline: 1.64 (SD 1.71)
Post-treatment (6 weeks): 1.00 (SD 1.47)
Δ −0.64
At 6 months: 0.54 (SD 1.18)
Δ −1.10
Average Pain:
Baseline: 3.72 (SD 2.03)
Post-treatment (6 weeks): 1.40 (SD 1.68)
Δ −2.32
At 6 months: 1.04 (SD 1.62) Δ −2.68
Worst pain:
Baseline: 7.00 (SD 1.78)
Post-treatment (6 weeks): 3.88 (SD 2.40) Δ −3.12
At 6 months: 3.32 (SD 2.91) Δ −3.68
NPRS
Best Pain:
Baseline: 1.22 (SD 1.28)
Post-treatment (6 weeks): 1.13 (SD 1.25)
Δ − 0.09
At 6 months: 1.00 (SD 1.30)
Δ − 0.22
Average Pain:
Baseline: 3.30 (SD 1.61)
Post-treatment (6 weeks): 2.70 (SD 2.03)
Δ − 0.60
At 6 months: 2.14 (SD 1.83)
Δ − 1.16
Worst pain:
Baseline: 7.00 (SD 2.09)
Post-treatment (6 weeks): 6.39 (SD 2.55)
Δ − 0.61
At 6 months: 5.21 (SD 2.19)
Δ − 1.79
 
Between-group difference in change at 6 weeks (best pain):
Δ 0.55; in favour of eccentric exercise (ns)
Between-group difference in change at 6 months (best pain):
Δ 0.88; in favour of eccentric exercise (p = 0.02)
Between-group difference in change at 6 weeks (average pain):
Δ 1.72; in favour of eccentric exercise (p < 0.001)
Between-group difference in change at 6 months (average pain):
Δ 1.52; in favour of eccentric exercise (p = 0.02)
Between-group difference in change at 6 weeks (worst pain):
Δ 2.51; in favour of eccentric exercise (p < 0.001)
Between-group difference in change at 6 months (worst pain):
Δ 1.89; in favour of eccentric exercise (p = 0.006)
Dejaco et al. (2017) [37] I: 20
C: 16
I: 1
C: 1
VAS
Baseline: 39.0 (SD 18.5)
Post-treatment (12 weeks): 9.4 (SD 13.5)
Δ − 29.6
At 6 months: 19.1 (SD 24.5)
Δ − 19.9
VAS
Baseline: 42.0 (SD 27.0)
Post-treatment (12 weeks): 18.9 (SD 15.8)
Δ − 23.1
At 6 months: 19.8 (SD 18.5)
Δ − 22.3
 
Between-group difference in change at 12 weeks:
Δ 6.5; in favour of eccentric exercise (ns)
Between-group difference in change at 6 months:
Δ 2.4; in favour of control (ns)
Hallgren et al. (2014) [50] I: 51
C: 46
I: 1
C:1
VAS
Pain at rest:
Baseline: 15 (SD 19)
At 1 year: 2 (SD 6)
Δ − 13
Pain during activity:
Baseline: 61 (SD 22)
At 1 year: 18 (SD 23)
Δ −43
Pain at night:
Baseline: 46 (SD 28)
At 1 year: 12 (SD 19)
Δ − 34
VAS
Pain at rest:
Baseline: 20 (SD 21)
At 1 year: 4 (SD 13)
Δ − 16
Pain during activity:
Baseline: 66 (SD 20)
At 1 year: 18 (SD 21)
Δ −48
Pain at night:
Baseline: 40 (SD 30)
At 1 year: 14 (SD 21)
Δ − 26
Long-term follow-up of the study by Holmgren et al. 2012.
NB: 12 patients in the intervention group and 29 in the control group underwent surgery but were still included in 1-year follow-up.
Between-group difference in change (pain at rest):
Δ 3; in favour of control (ns)
Between-group difference in change (pain during activity):
Δ 5; in favour of control (ns)
Between-group difference in change (pain at night):
Δ 8; in favour of eccentric exercise (ns)
Holmgren et al. (2012) [26] I: 51
C: 46
I: 0
C: 0
VAS
Pain at rest:
Baseline: 15 (SD 19)
Post-treatment (12 weeks): 10 (SD 14)
Δ − 5
Pain during activity:
Baseline: 61 (SD 22)
Post-treatment (12 weeks): 25 (SD 26)
Δ − 36
Pain at night:
Baseline: 46 (SD 28)
Post-treatment (12 weeks): 15 (SD 22)
Δ − 31
VAS
Pain at rest:
Baseline: 20 (SD 21)
Post-treatment (12 weeks): 20 (SD 25)
Δ 0 *
Pain during activity:
Baseline: 66 (SD 20)
Post-treatment (12 weeks): 41 (SD 27)
Δ − 25
Pain at night:
Baseline: 40 (SD 30)
Post-treatment (12 weeks): 27 (SD 27)
Δ − 13
* Holmgren reports an erroneous value for within group change for VAS at rest for the control group (− 5).
Between-group difference in change (pain at rest):
Δ 5; in favour of eccentric exercise (ns)
Between-group difference in change (pain during activity):
Δ 11; in favour of eccentric exercise (ns)
Between-group difference in change (pain at night):
Δ 18; in favour of eccentric exercise (95% CI − 30.9 to − 7.2)
Maenhout et al. (2013) [25] I: 31
C: 30
I: 4
C: 5
SPADI Pain subscale
Baseline: 25.8 (SD 10.4)
Post-treatment (12 weeks): 11.0 (SD 9.5)
Δ − 14.8
SPADI Pain subscale
Baseline: 28.4 (SD 12.4)
Post-treatment (12 weeks): 11.0 (SD 11.5)
Δ − 17.4
Pain was measured using the SPADI. Data were provided via e-mail so that we could extract data for the pain subscale. Scale ranges from 0 to 50, higher score indicates worse pain.
Between-group difference in change:
Δ 2.6; in favour of control (ns)
Vallés-Carrascosa et al. (2018) [32] I: 11
C: 11
I: 0
C: 0
VAS
Baseline: 37.0 (32.0; 79.0)
Post-treatment (4 weeks): 12.0 (3.0; 30.0)
Δ − 25.0
VAS
Baseline: 55.0 (48.0; 68.0)
Post-treatment (4 weeks): 28.0 (18.0; 37.0)
Δ − 27.0
Median (1st; 3rd quartile)
Between-group difference in change:
Δ 2; in favour of non-painful eccentric exercise (ns)
  1. RCT randomized controlled trial, VAS Visual Analogue Scale, NPRS Numerical Pain Rating Scale, SPADI Shoulder Pain and Disability Index, ns not significant, CI confidence interval
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