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Table 1 Characteristics and risk of bias of included studies

From: Effects of eccentric exercise in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, year, country Participants Intervention (details in Table 2) Control Outcome measures Follow-up period PEDro score for quality (details in 2) Cochrane score for clinical relevance (details in Appendix 3)
Bateman et al. 2014, United Kingdom [38] n = 11, not responded to previous conservative treatment, on waiting list for operation, image verified rotator cuff tendinopathy or positive response to subacromial corticosteroid injection. Intervention 4 individuals, mean age 52 years; control_1 3 individuals, mean age 53 years; control_2 4 individuals, mean age 55 years. Eccentric exercise; Intensity: pain reproduction Resistance exercise (concentric phase only); Intensity matched experiment group Pain: VAS; Function: Oxford Shoulder Score 8 weeks (post-treatment) 5/10 4/5
Blume et al. 2015, United States [35] n = 34, shoulder pain, positive Neer’s, Hawkins or cross-body adduction test. Intervention 10 women 8 men, mean age 50.1 years (SD 16.9); control 10 women 6 men, mean age 48.6 years (SD 14.6). Eccentric exercise; Intensity: 70–80% of 1RM Resistance exercise (concentric phase only); Intensity matched experiment group Pain: NPRS; Function: DASH 8 weeks (post-treatment) 8/10 5/5
Chaconas et al. 2017, United States [34] n = 46, shoulder pain at least 3 months, 3 or more positive: Neer’s, Hawkins, empty can test, painful arc sign, shoulder external rotation pain, palpation pain supra/infraspinatus. Intervention 10 women 15 men, mean age 43.4 years (SD 17.9); control 9 women 12 men, mean age 48.4 years (SD 16.9). Eccentric exercise; Intensity: 65% of 1RM Resistance exercise; Intensity lower than experiment group Pain: NPRS; Function: WORC 6 weeks (post-treatment) & 6 months (intermediate term follow-up) 6/10 5/5
Dejaco et al. 2017, Netherlands [37] n = 36, subacromial pain at least 3 months, 2 of 3 positive: Neer’s, Hawkins, empty can test. Intervention 10 women 10 men, mean age 50.2 years (SD 10.8); control 7 women 9 men, mean age 48.6 years (SD 12.3). Eccentric exercise; Intensity: pain reproduction Resistance exercise; Intensity matched experiment group Pain: VAS; Function: Constant-Murley Score 12 weeks (post-treatment) & 6 months (intermediate term follow-up) 7/10 5/5
Hallgren et al. 2014, Sweden [50] Reporting on the same study participant, intervention and control as Holmgren et al 2012 Pain: VAS; Function: Constant-Murley Score 1 year (long-term follow-up) 7/10 5/5
Holmgren et al. 2012, Sweden [26] n = 97, diagnosed with primary SIS, shoulder pain at least 6 months, not responded to previous conservative treatment, on waiting list for operation, positive Neer’s injection test, 3 of 4 positive: Neer’s, Hawkins, empty can test, Patte’s manoeuvre. Intervention 14 women 37 men, mean age 52 years (SD 9); control 22 women 24 men, mean age 52 years (SD 8). Eccentric exercise; Intensity: pain reproduction; Corticosteroid injection Mobility exercise; Intensity lower than experiment group; Corticosteroid injection Pain: VAS; Function: Constant-Murley Score 12 weeks (post-treatment) 7/10 5/5
Maenhout et al. 2013, Belgium [25] n = 61, shoulder pain at least 3 months, painful arc sign, palpation pain supra/infraspinatus, 2 of 3 positive: Neer’s, Hawkins, empty can test and 2 of 4 painful resistance tests. Intervention 16 women 15 men, mean age 40.2 years (SD 12.9); control 20 women 10 men, mean age 39.4 years (SD 13.1). Eccentric exercise; Intensity: pain reproduction Resistance exercise; Intensity matched experiment group Pain and function: SPADI 12 weeks (post-treatment) 6/10 5/5
Vallés-Carrascosa et al. 2018, Spain [36] n = 22, diagnosed with SIS, positive painful arc sign. Intervention 8 women 3 men, mean age 57 years; control 4 women 7 men, mean age 60 years. Eccentric exercise, pain up to 40–50 mm on VAS Eccentric exercise, pain free execution Pain: VAS; Function: Constant-Murley Score 4 weeks (post-treatment) 7/10 5/5
  1. SIS Shoulder Impingement Syndrome, VAS Visual Analogue Scale, NPRS Numerical Pain Rating Scale, DASH Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire, WORC The Western Ontario Rotator Cuff index, SPADI Shoulder Pain and Disability Index
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