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Table 3 Characteristics of studies

From: Relationship between the changes over time of bone mass and muscle health in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First author, year Population
“n” and type of population
Sex ratio
Time of follow-up Measure of bone quantity
Unit
Site(s)
Tool
Measure of muscle components  
Muscle Mass
Unit
Site
Tool
Muscle strength
Unit
Site
Tool
Physical performance
Unit
Tool
Arabi et al., 2012 [36] 192 older subjects (65–85 years)
66.7% of male
4.2 years Bone mineral density
Hip, femoral neck, lumbar spine
DEXA
Lean mass
Subtotal body
DEXA
  
Bleicher et al., 2011 [38] 1114 older men
Not applicable
2.1 years Bone mineral density
Hip
DEXA
Lean mass
Total body
DEXA
  
Chen et al., 1997 [39] 45 postmenopausal women
Not applicable
1 year Bone mineral density
Hip, femoral neck, lumbar spine, total body
DEXA
Lean mass
Total body
DEXA
  
Hrafnkelsson et al., 2013 [31] 164 school children of 7 years
57.3% of male
2 years Bone mineral density
Hip, femoral neck, total body
DEXA
Lean mass
Total body
DEXA
  
Liu-Ambrose et al., 2006 [22] 53 premenopausal women
Not applicable
12 years Bone mineral density
Hip, lumbar spine, total body
DEXA
Lean mass
Total body
DEXA
  
Milliken et al., 2009 [29] 167 postmenopausal women (40–65 years)
Not applicable
4 years Bone mineral density
Hip, femoral neck
DEXA
Lean mass
Total body
DEXA
  
Cadogan et al., 1998 [34] 182 elderly community-dwelling women
Not applicable
2 years Bone mineral density
Total body
DEXA
Lean mass
Total body
DEXA
  
Vicente-Rodriguez et al., 2005 [27] 42 prepubertal boys
Not applicable
3.3 years Bone mineral density
Hip, femoral neck
DEXA
Lean mass
Total body
DEXA
  
Young et al., 2001 [25] 286 female twins aged 8–26 years
Not applicable
1.8 years Bone mineral density
Hip, femoral neck, lumbar spine
DEXA
Lean mass
Total body
DEXA
  
Heidemann et al., 2015 [32] 683 children (preschool to 4th grade)
50.9% of male
2 years Bone mineral content
Total body
DEXA
Lean mass
Subtotal body
DEXA
  
Wang et al., 2007 [26] 221 pubertal girls (10–13 years)
Not applicable
2 years Bone mineral content
Total body, left arm, left leg
DEXA
  Maximal Isometric Voluntary Contraction
left elbow flexors, left leg extensors
Dynamometer chair
 
Sirola et al., 2006 [28] 971 peri- and postmenopausal women
Not applicable
5.9 years Bone mineral density
Lumbar spine, femoral neck
DEXA
  Kilopascal
Handgrip
Pneumatic dynamometer
 
Sirola et al., 2006 [11] 587 peri- and postmenopausal women
Not applicable
10.3 years Bone mineral density
Lumbar spine, femoral neck
DEXA
  Kilopascal
Handgrip
Pneumatic dynamometer
 
Sirola et al., 2005 [37] 622 peri- and postmenopausal women
Not applicable
10.3 years Bone mineral density
Lumbar spine, femoral neck
DEXA
  Kilopascal
Handgrip
Pneumatic dynamometer
 
Kwon et al., 2007 [30] 182 elderly community-dwelling women
Not applicable
2 years Bone mineral density
Forearm
DEXA
   Walking speed
5-m