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Table 3 Characteristics of studies

From: Relationship between the changes over time of bone mass and muscle health in children and adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First author, year Population “n” and type of population Sex ratio Time of follow-up Measure of bone quantity Unit Site(s) Tool Measure of muscle components  
Muscle Mass Unit Site Tool Muscle strength Unit Site Tool Physical performance Unit Tool
Arabi et al., 2012 [36] 192 older subjects (65–85 years) 66.7% of male 4.2 years Bone mineral density Hip, femoral neck, lumbar spine DEXA Lean mass Subtotal body DEXA   
Bleicher et al., 2011 [38] 1114 older men Not applicable 2.1 years Bone mineral density Hip DEXA Lean mass Total body DEXA   
Chen et al., 1997 [39] 45 postmenopausal women Not applicable 1 year Bone mineral density Hip, femoral neck, lumbar spine, total body DEXA Lean mass Total body DEXA   
Hrafnkelsson et al., 2013 [31] 164 school children of 7 years 57.3% of male 2 years Bone mineral density Hip, femoral neck, total body DEXA Lean mass Total body DEXA   
Liu-Ambrose et al., 2006 [22] 53 premenopausal women Not applicable 12 years Bone mineral density Hip, lumbar spine, total body DEXA Lean mass Total body DEXA   
Milliken et al., 2009 [29] 167 postmenopausal women (40–65 years) Not applicable 4 years Bone mineral density Hip, femoral neck DEXA Lean mass Total body DEXA   
Cadogan et al., 1998 [34] 182 elderly community-dwelling women Not applicable 2 years Bone mineral density Total body DEXA Lean mass Total body DEXA   
Vicente-Rodriguez et al., 2005 [27] 42 prepubertal boys Not applicable 3.3 years Bone mineral density Hip, femoral neck DEXA Lean mass Total body DEXA   
Young et al., 2001 [25] 286 female twins aged 8–26 years Not applicable 1.8 years Bone mineral density Hip, femoral neck, lumbar spine DEXA Lean mass Total body DEXA   
Heidemann et al., 2015 [32] 683 children (preschool to 4th grade) 50.9% of male 2 years Bone mineral content Total body DEXA Lean mass Subtotal body DEXA   
Wang et al., 2007 [26] 221 pubertal girls (10–13 years) Not applicable 2 years Bone mineral content Total body, left arm, left leg DEXA   Maximal Isometric Voluntary Contraction left elbow flexors, left leg extensors Dynamometer chair  
Sirola et al., 2006 [28] 971 peri- and postmenopausal women Not applicable 5.9 years Bone mineral density Lumbar spine, femoral neck DEXA   Kilopascal Handgrip Pneumatic dynamometer  
Sirola et al., 2006 [11] 587 peri- and postmenopausal women Not applicable 10.3 years Bone mineral density Lumbar spine, femoral neck DEXA   Kilopascal Handgrip Pneumatic dynamometer  
Sirola et al., 2005 [37] 622 peri- and postmenopausal women Not applicable 10.3 years Bone mineral density Lumbar spine, femoral neck DEXA   Kilopascal Handgrip Pneumatic dynamometer  
Kwon et al., 2007 [30] 182 elderly community-dwelling women Not applicable 2 years Bone mineral density Forearm DEXA    Walking speed 5-m