Skip to main content

Table 2 Associations between plantar heel pain and selected demographics, health status and lifestyle factors

From: Plantar heel pain in middle-aged and older adults: population prevalence, associations with health status and lifestyle factors, and frequency of healthcare use

  Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Gender
 Male 1 1
 Female 1.09 (0.90, 1.32) 1.05 (0.86, 1.27)a
Age (years)
 50–64 1 1
 65–74 0.94 (0.75, 1.18) 0.99 (0.78, 1.24)b
 75+ 0.95 (0.73, 1.24) 1.12 (0.86, 1.46)b
Age, Males
 50–64 1 1
 65–74 0.89 (0.64, 1.23) 0.94 (0.68, 1.31)b
 75+ 0.87 (0.57, 1.31) 1.01 (0.67, 1.54)b
Age, Females
 50–64 1 1
 65–74 1.00 (0.73, 1.36) 1.03 (0.75, 1.41)b
 75+ 1.01 (0.72, 1.42) 1.21 (0.86, 1.71)b
Socio-economic classification
 Managerial and professional 1 1
 Intermediate occupations 1.90 (1.29, 2.80) 1.87 (1.27, 2.77)c
 Routine and manual 2.52 (1.82, 3.50) 2.51 (1.80, 3.48)c
SF-12 Physical Component Score
 High physical health (> 42.6) 1 1
 Low physical health (≤42.6) 4.16 (3.28, 5.27) 4.01 (3.13, 5.14)c
SF-12 Mental Component Score
 High mental health (> 52.6) 1 1
 Low mental health (≤52.6) 2.76 (2.21, 3.43) 2.58 (2.07, 3.22)c
HADS Anxiety
 Normal (0–7) 1 1
 Mild (8–10) 2.40 (1.87, 3.07) 2.35 (1.83, 3.01)c
 Moderate (11–14) 3.11 (2.40, 4.03) 2.95 (2.26, 3.84)c
 Severe (15–21) 4.12 (2.97, 5.71) 3.86 (2.74, 5.42)c
HADS Depression
 Normal (0–7) 1 1
 Mild (8–10) 2.39 (1.86, 3.07) 2.16 (1.67, 2.81)c
 Moderate (11–14) 3.57 (2.72, 4.69) 3.08 (2.33, 4.08)c
 Severe (15–21) 4.33 (2.84, 6.62) 3.80 (2.41, 5.98)c
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 < 25 1 1
 25–29.9 1.47 (1.13, 1.91) 1.48 (1.14, 1.93)d
 30–34.9 1.84 (1.36, 2.48) 1.85 (1.37, 2.50)d
 ≥ 35 4.44 (3.21, 6.13) 4.47 (3.23, 6.18)d
Self-reported frequent use of high-heeled footweare
 Low 1 1
 High 0.72 (0.55, 0.95) 0.73 (0.55, 0.96)a
Physical activity (Short-Form IPAQ)
 Low 1 1
 Moderate 0.57 (0.45, 0.72) 0.61 (0.48, 0.78)c
 High 0.46 (0.35, 0.60) 0.50 (0.38, 0.66)c
Keele Assessment of Participationf
 All of the time/most of the time 1 1
 Some of the time/a little of the time/none of the time 3.10 (2.55, 3.78) 2.96 (2.40, 3.66)c
  1. Based on imputed and weighted analyses
  2. OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence Interval, SF-12 Short Form-12, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, IPAQ International Physical Activity Questionnaire
  3. aEstimate adjusted for age and body mass index
  4. bEstimate adjusted for gender and body mass index
  5. cEstimate adjusted for age, gender and body mass index
  6. dEstimate adjusted for age and gender
  7. eEstimate restricted to females and the exposure was defined as previous footwear (low- versus high-heeled shoes) worn on most days for at least one 10-year period between 20 and 49 years old
  8. fResponse to statement: During the past 4 weeks, I have moved around outside my home, as and when I have wanted