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Table 8 Accuracy statistics for 5 levels of the clinical predictors* (95% confidence intervals)

From: Can short-term effectiveness of anti-pronation taping predict the long-term outcomes of customized foot orthoses: developing predictors to identify characteristics of patients with plantar heel pain likely to benefit from customized foot orthoses

Variable Sensitivity Specificity Positive likelihood ratio Posttest probability
5 0.06 (0.01, 0.17) 1.00 (0.86, 1.00) inf (inf, inf) 100% (100, 100%)
4+ 0.35 (0.22, 0.50) 0.96 (0.80, 1.00) 8.67 (1.22, 61.48) 94% (71, 99%)
3+ 0.86 (0.73, 0.94) 0.80 (0.59, 0.93) 4.29 (1.94, 9.46) 89% (79, 95%)
2+ 0.98 (0.89, 1.00) 0.32 (0.15, 0.54) 1.44 (1.10, 1.89) 74% (68, 79%)
1+ 1.00 (0.93, 1.00) 0.08 (0.01, 0.26) 1.09 (0.97, 1.22) 68% (65, 71%)
  1. inf: infinity
  2. *Predictors: the average pain intensity decreased by over 1.5 points with taping, ankle plantarflexion ROM > 54 degrees, the strength of ankle plantarflexors on the symptomatic side equal to or stronger than that on the contralateral side, hip internal rotation ROM < 39 degrees, and hip external rotation ROM > 45 degrees