Skip to main content

Table 1 Fracture characteristics, concomitant injuries, and treatment details per Hawkins classification

From: Clinical outcome and concomitant injuries in operatively treated fractures of the lateral process of the talus

Hawkins classification Type 1 n=16 (73%) Type 2 n=5 (23%) Type 3 n=1 (5%)
Displacement ≥2 mm 13 (81%) 5 (100%) 1
Comminuted 6* (38%) 5 (100%) 1
Concomitant injuries 13 (73%) 4 (80%) 1
Number concomitant injuries 1.7 ± 1.1 (0 to 4) 2.0 ± 1.6 (0 to 4) 3
Primary surgical procedure
 ORIF 16 (100%) 0 (0%) 0
 Resection 0 (0%) 5 (100%) 1
Additional surgical procedures
 None 5 (31%) 1 (20%) 0
 Resection i.a. loose bodies 7 (44%) 0 0
 Subtalar microfracturing 2 (13%) 1 (20%) 1
 Subtalar AMIC 2 (13%) 0 0
 Reconstruction lateral ankle ligament complex 0 2 (40%) 0
 Peroneal tendon repair 0 1 (20%) 0
  1. * As assessed on CT imaging, one main fragment accompanied by smaller chip-off fragments