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Table 3 Results of longitudinal analyses for primary and exploratory outcome parameters between groups

From: Is treated HIV infection associated with knee cartilage degeneration and structural changes? A longitudinal study using data from the osteoarthritis initiative

Parameters The rates of change over 8 years Differences on average over 8 years
Effect size (95% CI)a Pi value Effect size (95% CI)b Pa value
Primary outcome parameters
 Regular T2 values
  T2 global* 0.005 (−0.011, 0.022) 0.523 0.13 (−0.90, 1.15) 0.809
 Laminar T2 values
  Global bone layer T2 0.006 (−0.009, 0.022) 0.411 0.20 (−0.72, 1.12) 0.669
  Global articular layer T2 0.005 (−0.014, 0.024) 0.620 0.89 (−0.41, 2.19) 0.180
 Texture parameters
  Global knee contrast* −0.072 (−0.108, − 0.035) 0.000   
  Global knee variance* −0.031 (− 0.050, − 0.013) 0.001   
  Global knee entropy* −0.001 (− 0.004, 0.002) 0.460 0.09 (0.00, 0.19) 0.047
Exploratory outcome parameters
 WORMS scores
  Cartilage sum score 0.012 (−0.008, 0.032) 0.248 −1.04 (−2.61, 0.53) 0.194
  Meniscus sum score 0.004 (−0.008, 0.015) 0.514 −0.79 (− 2.31, 0.74) 0.313
  BMEPs sum score 0.004 (−0.006, 0.015) 0.437 −0.89 (−2.21, 0.43) 0.188
  Subchondral cysts sum score 0.001 (−0.009, 0.012) 0.788 −1.51 (−2.47, − 0.55) 0.002
  Effusion score 0.000 (−0.003, 0.003) 0.865 0.24 (0.10, 0.38) 0.001
  Ligament sum score* −0.001 (− 0.007, 0.004) 0.610 − 0.16 (− 0.65, 0.34) 0.534
 IPFP and SPFP signal abnormalities
  IPFP signal abnormalities (size) −0.007 (− 0.011, − 0.003) 0.001   
  IPFP signal abnormalities (SI) −0.006 (− 0.011, − 0.002) 0.010   
  SPFP signal abnormalities (SI)* −0.004 (− 0.007, − 0.000) 0.030   
  1. *Parameters that had a non-linear change over 8 years. aEffect size for the rates of change over 8 years between groups, with (95% confidence intervals, CI) provided. bEffect size for the differences on average over 8 years between groups, with (95% confidence intervals) provided. Effect size were corrected for age, sex, race and baseline BMI and K&L grades. Pi values < 0.05 were in bold, indicating significant interactions with time. Pa values < 0.05 were in bold, indicating significant differences on average over 8 years. BMEP bone marrow edema pattern, IPFP infrapatellar fat pad, SPFP suprapatellar fat pad, SI signal intensity