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Table 2 Unilateral referral and bilateral referral in 180 patients with carpometacarpal osteoarthritis

From: Non-pharmacological treatment gap preceding surgical consultation in thumb carpometacarpal osteoarthritis - a cross-sectional study

  Unilateral referral (n = 101) Bilateral referral (n = 79)
Referred hand Non-referred hand P value Left Right P value
Body structure
 Radiographic CMCJ OA severity (0–4, 0 = no CMCJ OA), median (IQR) 3 (3,4) 3 (3,4) 3 (2,4) .16
 Presence of clinical CMCJ subluxation, n (%) 65 (64) 46 (58) 38 (48) .02
 Radiographic CMCJ subluxation ratio, mean (SD) 0.51 (0.10) 0.50 (0.10) 0.48 (0.11) .04
 Number of finger joints with clinical nodes (0–9 joints), median (IQR) 0 (0,2) 0 (0,1) <.001 0 (0,2) 0 (0,2) NA
Body function
 Pain at rest (0–10 scale), median (IQR) 3 (1,5) 0 (0,2) <.001 3 (1,5) 2 (0,4) .11
 Pain following measure of grip strength (0–10, 0 = no pain), median (IQR) 4 (1,5) 0 (0,2) <.001 3 (1,4) 2 (1,5) .84
 Pain following measure of pinch strength (0–10, 0 = no pain), median (IQR) 4 (1,6) 0 (0,2) <.001 3 (2,5) 3 (1,5) .33
 Max grip strength, Newton (N), median (IQR) 159 (106,240) 214 (150,316) <.001 159 (97,234) 177 (118,235) .02
 Max pinch strength, N, median (IQR) 29 (20,40) 37 (27,48) <.001 30 (20,39) 29 (23,43) .40
 Grip strength referred hand (% of normal grip strength), mean (SD) 65 (25) 82 (26) <.001 64 (27) 67 (29) .33
 Pinch strength referred hand (% of normal pinch strength), mean SD 60 (25) 76 (29) <.001 61 (27) 65 (27) .10
 Number of painful finger joints (MCPJ, IP, PIPJ, DIPJ: 0–14 joints), median (IQR) 1 (0,4) 1 (0,4) NA 2 (1,5) 3 (1,5) .26
 Flexion deficit 2nd-5th fingers, mm, median (IQR) 0 (0,0) 0 (0,0) .09 0 (0,3) 0 (0,0) .40
 Range of motion thumb IP, degrees, median (IQR) 70 (58,76) 75 (65,80) <.001 70 (62,80) 70 (60,70) .50
 Range of motion MCP1, degrees, median (IQR) 50 (42,56) 55 (45,65) <.001 50 (40,60) 50 (42,60) .42
 Palmar abduction thumb, degrees, median (IQR) 46 (40,55) 56 (47,62) <.001 50 (42,58) 50 (42,58) .60
 Abduction CMCJ, degrees, median (IQR) 36 (30,42) 42 (34,49) <.001 37 (32,44) 39 (30,44) .55
  1. Numbers are reported as median and interquartile range (IQR), number and proportion (%), or mean and standard deviation (SD). Radiographic CMCJ OA severity is classified using modified Kellgren-Lawrence scale (grade 0–4, 0 = no CMCJ OA). Pain is self-reported using Numeric Rating Scales (NRS 0–10, 0 = no pain). Grip and pinch strength is measured in Newton (N) using the Grippit electronic instrument. Flexion deficit is measured in millimeters (mm). Range of motion is measured in degrees with goniometer. Palmar abduction thumb and CMCJ abduction is measured in degrees using the Pollexograph®
  2. Differences between referred hand/non-referred hand and between left/right referral are analysed with Paired-samples t-test if normally distributed, Wilcoxon Signed Rank test if skewed, or Chi-Square test if categorical, and reported with p-values
  3. NRS Numeric Rating Scale, MCPJ metacarpophalangeal joint, IP thumb interphalangeal joint, PIPJ proximal interphalangeal joints, DIPJ distal interphalangeal joints, MCP1 thumb metacarpophalangeal joint, NA not applicable to calculate p-value because of many ties