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Table 1 Prescribed exercise for all the groups

From: Effect of 6-week retro or forward walking program on pain, functional disability, quadriceps muscle strength, and performance in individuals with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial (retro-walking trial)

Exercise Procedure Frequency Intensity Progression
Isometric quadriceps exercise Patients lay in a supine position. A rolled up towel was put beneath the knee. They were instructed to maximally activate their thigh muscles in order to straighten their knee and hold the contraction for 5 s. 3 days/week 1 set of 10 repetitions/twice a day 1st week: 1 set
2–3 weeks: 2 sets
3–6 weeks: 3 sets
Straight leg raising (SLR) exercise Patients lay in a supine position. They were instructed to perform a maximum isometric quadriceps contraction prior to the lifting phase of the exercise. Then they were instructed to lift the leg up to 10 cm above the plinth and hold the contraction during the lifting phase for 10 s. 3 days/week 1 set of 10 repetitions/twice a day 1st week: 1 set
2–3 weeks: 2 sets
3–6 weeks: 3 sets
Isometric hip adduction exercise Patients lay in a supine position. A small pillow was put between the knees. They were instructed to perform isometric hip adduction exercise while pressing the pillow between the knees and to maintain the adduction with contraction for 5 s. 3 days/week 1 set of 10 repetitions/twice a day 1st week: 1 set
2–3 weeks: 2 sets
3–6 weeks: 3 sets
Terminal knee extension exercise Patients lay in a supine position. The affected knee is flexed about 30 degrees over a rolled towel. The patients were instructed to extend the knee to zero degree and hold it for 5 s then gradually flex the knee to starting position. 3 days/week 1 set of 10 repetitions/twice a day 1st week: 1 set
2–3 weeks: 2 sets
3–6 weeks: 3 sets
Semi-squat exercise Patients were asked to stand against the wall and performed semi-squat to 45- degrees flexion at knees and held this position for 30 s. 3 days/week 1 set of 10 repetitions/twice a day 1st week: 1 set
2–3 weeks: 2 sets
3–6 weeks: 3 sets
leg press exercise Patients were asked to perform leg press exercise on a standard leg press machine. Patients were asked to press the machine to extend the knee to zero degree and hold it for 5 s then gradually flex the knee to starting position. 3 days/week 1 set of 10 repetitions/twice a day 1st week: 1 set
2–3 weeks: 2 sets
3–6 weeks: 3 sets