Skip to main content

Table 3 Functional tests and patient-reported outcomes (PROs)

From: Altered postural timing and abnormally low use of proprioception in lumbar spinal stenosis pre- and post- surgical decompression

  Patients
N = 9
Patients post-surgery
N = 9
Mean difference (95%CI) P
Mean Mean
Functional tests
 Spine mobility (cm)a 9.89 10.00 0.11 (4.13 − −3.91) 0.951
 Functional reach (cm)b 32.05 34.11 2.06 (11.95 − − 7.84) 0.645
 BBS (scale max. 56)c 52.67 54.33 1.67 (4.27 − − 0.94) 0.179
 10 m walking test (sec) 6.8 5.7 −1.1 (0.3 − − 2.4) 0.099
 CRT (sec)d 16 18 2 (5 − − 1) 0.250
 CTSIB (scale 6–24)e 9.3 9.6 0.2 (1.4 − − 0.9) 0.665
 POMA (scale max. 28)f 26.7 27.3 0.67 (1.5 − −0.2) 0.111
 TUG (sec)g 10.0 8.9 − 1.1 (0.5 − − 2.7) 0.154
PROs
 Pain intensity during rest (VAS scale 0–10) 2.11 0.67 −1.44 (−0.05 − − 2.84) 0.044*
 Pain intensity during stress (VAS scale 0–10) 7.56 3.67 − 3.89 (− 2.53 − − 5.35) < 0.000*
 Max. walking distance (m) 329 4775 4446 (8302–591) 0.030*
 FFb-H-R (score max. 100%)h 60.7 73.2 − 12.5 (− 2.8 − − 22.2) 0.018*
 SF-36 (score 0–100%)i 49.3 56.4 7.2 (23.0 − −8.6) 0.326
  1. *indicates a significant difference p < 0.05
  2. P p-value, CI confidence interval, BBS Berg Balance Scale, CRT Chair Rising Test, CTSIB Clinical Test for Sensory Interaction in Balance, POMA Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, TUG Times Up and Go test, VAS Visual Analogue Scale, FFb-H-R Hannover questionnaire for functional disability caused by back pain
  3. aSpine mobility is determined by the distance between the fingertips and ground in cm
  4. b< 25 cm indicates an increased fall risk
  5. c< 54 indicates an increased fall risk
  6. dDuration in sec for five sit-to-stand repetitions
  7. eA higher score indicate greater balance problems
  8. f< 24 indicates an increased fall risk
  9. g<10s indicates unlimited mobility
  10. h> 100%–80% normal function. 70%–80% moderate impaired function. 60% − 70 impaired function. < 60% clinical-relevant functional disability
  11. iA higher score represents less disability