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Table 3 Baseline external knee moments (%BW x Ht) for preferred speed overground walking, Mean (SE)

From: Gait mechanics contribute to exercise induced pain flares in knee osteoarthritis

  1st Peak vertical GRF BW Flexiona 1st Adduction 2nd Adductiona Internal rotationa Total reactiona
Pain Flare (n = 7) 1.16 (0.03) 3.65 (0.58) −2.94 (0.34) −1.95 (0.32) −0.76 (0.13) 4.85 (0.46)
No Flare (n = 11) 1.14 (0.04) 2.30 (0.39) −2.73 (0.29) −1.44 (0.24) −0.73 (0.09) 3.73 (0.34)
Controls (n = 15) 1.22 (0.02) 4.10 (0.31) −3.33 (0.33) −2.04 (0.31) −1.03 (0.09) 5.38 (0.37)
p-value/effect size
 PF vs C      p = 0.03 d = 0.66  
 NF vs C   p < 0.001, d = 1.24   p = 0.01, d = 0.67 p = 0.001 d = 1.00 p < 0.001, d = 1.12
 PF vs NF   p = 0.02 d = 0.84   p = 0.1 d = 0.7   p = 0.05 d = 0.84
  1. aindicates a significant group effect. The final rows report the p-values and cohen’s d effect size for post-hoc pairwise comparisons with p < 0.1 and d > 0.4