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Table 2 Baseline knee angles for preferred speed overground walking, Mean (SE)

From: Gait mechanics contribute to exercise induced pain flares in knee osteoarthritis

  Overground speeda
(m/s)
Cadencea
(step/min)
Heel-strike Flexiona
(deg)
Peak Flexion
(deg)
Toe-off Flexiona
(deg)
Average In/ext. rotationa
(deg)
Pain Flare (n = 8) 1.35 (0.10) 58.28 (1.51) 9.71 (2.76) 20.49 (2.44) 58.25 (3.50) 3.07 (1.20)
No Flare (n = 11) 1.35 (0.06) 59.41 (0.90) 6.70 (1.31) 16.06 (1.68) 62.33 (1.97) −1.47 (1.63)
Controls (n = 15) 1.48 (0.03) 60.43 (0.97) 1.66 (1.14) 18.64 (1.15) 67.36 (0.91) −0.04 (1.25)
p-value /effect size
 PF vs C p = 0.04 d = 0.83 p = 0.02 d = 0.78 p < 0.001 d = 1.48   p < 0.001 d = 1.51 p = 0.05 d = 0.70
 NF vs C p = 0.09 d = 0.74   p = 0.002 d = 1.00   p = 0.002 d = 0.98  
 PF vs NF   p = 0.05 d = 0.60     p = 0.02 d = 0.95
  1. aindicates a significant main group effect. The final rows report the p-values and cohen’s d effect size for post-hoc pairwise comparisons with p < 0.1 and d > 0.4