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Table 4 Overview of study measurements related to the clinical intervention

From: GLA:D® Back: implementation of group-based patient education integrated with exercises to support self-management of back pain - protocol for a hybrid effectiveness-implementation study

Construct Instrument Patient reported Clinician reported National registries
Baseline 3-months 6-months 12-months Pre- intervention Post- intervention
Demographics Age, sex, height, weight, education x       
Work situation Job type, working hours x       
Risk profile The START Back screening tool x       
LBP history Pain duration (0–2 weeks; 2–4 weeks; 4–12 weeks; 3–12 months; > 1 year)
Pain trajectory last 12 months (one of seven patterns or ‘I don’t recognise any of the patterns)
x       
Comorbid pain Pain in any of nine regions on body chart in the last 2 weeks x    x    
Comorbidity Any chronic disease (yes/no) on a list of 15 conditions      x   
Illness perceptions The Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire [42, 43] x x x x    
Ability to move with variation How confident are you in performing exercises in a beneficial way?’ (0–10 scale from ‘not confident at all’ to ‘absolutely confident’) x x x x    
Physical back performance Standing forward bending [46]
The Ito back extensor endurance test [49, 50]
Trunk flexor endurance test [50, 51]
Sit-to-stand test
     x x  
Perceived physical fitness Self-assessed physical capacity [57] x x x x    
Fear of movement Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire [54, 56] x x x x    
Self-efficacy The Arthritis Self-efficacy Scale (subscales pain + other symptoms) [59] x x x x    
Pain intensity Numeric Rating Scale 0–10 for LBP and leg pain [64] x x x x    
Activity limitation Oswestry Disability Index [62, 63] x x x x    
Quality of life SF-36 general health, social functioning, mental health x x x x    
Work ability Current work ability
Number of days with LBP related sick leave within last 3 months
x x x x    
Content of intervention Received listed intervention yes/no   x      
Satisfaction Overall are you satisfied with your course of care (5-point Likert scale)   x      
Harms Did you experience any side effects or problems in relation to your participation in GLA:D Back?   x      
Back pain treatment Consultations to general practice, chiropractors, physiotherapists and other clinicians due to back pain x x x x    
Health care utilisation Reimbursed consultations to general practice, chiropractors and physiotherapists; Secondary care visits for back pain; Imaging for back pain
Prescriptions for pain medication
       x
Long-term sick leave Number of reimbursed days with sick leave        x