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Table 4 Overview of study measurements related to the clinical intervention

From: GLA:D® Back: implementation of group-based patient education integrated with exercises to support self-management of back pain - protocol for a hybrid effectiveness-implementation study

Construct Instrument Patient reported Clinician reported National registries
Baseline 3-months 6-months 12-months Pre- intervention Post- intervention
Demographics Age, sex, height, weight, education x       
Work situation Job type, working hours x       
Risk profile The START Back screening tool x       
LBP history Pain duration (0–2 weeks; 2–4 weeks; 4–12 weeks; 3–12 months; > 1 year)
Pain trajectory last 12 months (one of seven patterns or ‘I don’t recognise any of the patterns)
Comorbid pain Pain in any of nine regions on body chart in the last 2 weeks x    x    
Comorbidity Any chronic disease (yes/no) on a list of 15 conditions      x   
Illness perceptions The Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire [42, 43] x x x x    
Ability to move with variation How confident are you in performing exercises in a beneficial way?’ (0–10 scale from ‘not confident at all’ to ‘absolutely confident’) x x x x    
Physical back performance Standing forward bending [46]
The Ito back extensor endurance test [49, 50]
Trunk flexor endurance test [50, 51]
Sit-to-stand test
     x x  
Perceived physical fitness Self-assessed physical capacity [57] x x x x    
Fear of movement Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire [54, 56] x x x x    
Self-efficacy The Arthritis Self-efficacy Scale (subscales pain + other symptoms) [59] x x x x    
Pain intensity Numeric Rating Scale 0–10 for LBP and leg pain [64] x x x x    
Activity limitation Oswestry Disability Index [62, 63] x x x x    
Quality of life SF-36 general health, social functioning, mental health x x x x    
Work ability Current work ability
Number of days with LBP related sick leave within last 3 months
x x x x    
Content of intervention Received listed intervention yes/no   x      
Satisfaction Overall are you satisfied with your course of care (5-point Likert scale)   x      
Harms Did you experience any side effects or problems in relation to your participation in GLA:D Back?   x      
Back pain treatment Consultations to general practice, chiropractors, physiotherapists and other clinicians due to back pain x x x x    
Health care utilisation Reimbursed consultations to general practice, chiropractors and physiotherapists; Secondary care visits for back pain; Imaging for back pain
Prescriptions for pain medication
Long-term sick leave Number of reimbursed days with sick leave        x