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Table 2 Primary Analysis. Results from sex-stratified linear regression models regarding the association between musculoskeletal pain sites (NPS) and cardiovascular autonomic function (HR, rMSSD, SBPV, BRS) in the full sample (for HR and rMSSD, n = 1813 men and 2373 women; for SBPV and BRS, n = 919 men and 1112 women). The complete models are presented in Additional files 4 and 5

From: Musculoskeletal pains and cardiovascular autonomic function in the general Northern Finnish population

  Model I Model II Model III Model IV
  β for NPS [95% CI] β for NPS [95% CI] β for NPS [95% CI] β for NPS [95% CI]
Men
 Outcome: HR, seated 0.125 [−0.140; 0.391] − 0.117 [− 0.374; 0.139] −0.016 [− 0.288; 0.256] −0.184 [− 0.447; 0.079]
 Outcome: HR, standing 0.188 [− 0.105; 0.481] − 0.015 [− 0.304; 0.274] 0.036 [− 0.265; 0.337] − 0.099 [− 0.395; 0.197]
 Outcome: rMSSD, seated − 0.010 [− 0.024; 0.004] 0.002 [− 0.011; 0.016] −0.005 [− 0.019; 0.010] 0.004 [− 0.010; 0.018]
 Outcome: rMSSD, standing − 0.011 [− 0.025; 0.003] 0.000 [− 0.014; 0.014] − 0.005 [− 0.019; 0.009] 0.002 [− 0.012; 0.016]
 Outcome: SBPV, seated − 0.001 [− 0.026; 0.024] 0.000 [− 0.025; 0.026] 0.006 [− 0.020; 0.032] 0.005 [− 0.021; 0.032]
 Outcome: SBPV, standing − 0.014 [− 0.039; 0.011] − 0.012 [− 0.038; 0.014] 0.001 [− 0.025; 0.027] − 0.001 [− 0.027; 0.026]
 Outcome: BRS, seated − 0.002 [− 0.019; 0.015] 0.011 [− 0.005; 0.027] 0.003 [− 0.015; 0.020] 0.013 [− 0.004; 0.029]
 Outcome: BRS, standing − 0.001 [− 0.019; 0.016] 0.011 [− 0.006; 0.028] 0.003 [− 0.015; 0.021] 0.013 [− 0.005; 0.030]
Women
 Outcome: HR, seated 0.318 [0.119; 0.516] 0.179 [− 0.017; 0.375] 0.230 [0.024; 0.437] 0.147 [− 0.055; 0.350]
 Outcome: HR, standing 0.299 [0.066; 0.531] 0.203 [−0.029; 0.435] 0.256 [0.014; 0.498] 0.196 [−0.044; 0.436]
 Outcome: rMSSD, seated −0.020 [− 0.032; − 0.009] −0.011 [− 0.022; − 0.000] −0.011 [− 0.023; 0.001] −0.006 [− 0.017; 0.006]
 Outcome: rMSSD, standing − 0.016 [− 0.027; − 0.004] −0.009 [− 0.020; 0.003] −0.008 [− 0.020; 0.004] −0.004 [− 0.016; 0.008]
 Outcome: SBPV, seated − 0.001 [− 0.024; 0.022] 0.000 [− 0.023; 0.023] 0.003 [− 0.021; 0.027] 0.003 [− 0.021; 0.027]
 Outcome: SBPV, standing 0.009 [− 0.014; 0.032] 0.011 [− 0.013; 0.034] 0.015 [− 0.010; 0.039] 0.014 [− 0.010; 0.038]
 Outcome: BRS, seated −0.018 [− 0.032; − 0.004] −0.011 [− 0.025; 0.002] −0.010 [− 0.024; 0.005] −0.007 [− 0.021; 0.007]
 Outcome: BRS, standing − 0.027 [− 0.042; − 0.012] −0.019 [− 0.033; − 0.004] −0.019 [− 0.034; − 0.003] −0.015 [− 0.030; 0.000]
  1. Bold denotes statistical significance (p ≤ 0.05)
  2. Model I (crude): NPS
  3. Model II (adjusted for lifestyle): Model I + BMI + LTPA + smoking
  4. Model III (adjusted for comorbidities): Model I + HSCL-25 + comorbidity + medication
  5. Model IV (adjusted for lifestyle and comorbidities): Model II + Model III
  6. BMI Body mass index, BRS Baroreflex sensitivity, CI Confidence interval, HR Heart rate, HSCL-25 Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, LTPA Leisure-time physical activity, NPS Number of pain sites, P P value for β, rMSSD Root mean square of successive differences in R-R intervals, SBPV Systolic blood pressure variability, β Beta coefficient