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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of sample (n = 375)

From: Attitudes, skills and use of evidence-based practice among UK osteopaths: a national cross-sectional survey

Variable Subcategory Result
Age, n (%) <  20 years 1 (0.3)
20–29 years 19 (5.1)
30–39 years 55 (14.7)
40–49 years 85 (22.7)
50–59 years 92 (24.5)
60–69 years 21 (5.6)
70+ years 4 (1.1)
Missing 98 (26.1)
Sex, n (%) Female 146 (38.9)
Male 130 (34.7)
Missing 98 (26.1)
Highest qualification, n (%) Certificate 1 (0.3)
Diploma/Advanced Diploma 34 (9.1)
Bachelor degree 39 (10.4)
Honours degree 76 (20.3)
Graduate Certificate/Diploma 29 (7.7)
Master’s degree 91 (24.3)
PhD/Professional doctorate 7 (1.9)
Missing 98 (26.1)
Years since receiving highest qualification, n (%) <  1 year 15 (4.0)
1–5 years 42 (11.2)
6–10 years 79 (21.1)
11–15 years 41 (10.9)
16+ years 100 (26.7)
Missing 98 (26.1)
Years practiced in the field of osteopathy, n (%) < 1 year 7 (1.9)
1–5 years 23 (6.1)
6–10 years 68 (18.1)
11–15 years 56 (14.9)
16+ years 123 (32.8)
Missing 98 (26.1)
Hours per week in clinical (osteopathic) practice, n (%) 0 h 1 (0.3)
1–15 h 40 (10.7)
16–30 h 129 (34.4)
31–45 h 90 (24.0)
46+ hours 17 (4.5)
Missing 98 (26.1)
Hours per week participating in research, n (%) 0 h 136 (36.3)
1–15 h 132 (35.2)
16–30 h 7 (1.9)
31–45 h 2 (0.5)
46+ hours 0 (0.0)
Missing 98 (26.1)
Hours per week teaching in the higher education sector, n (%) 0 h 208 (55.5)
1–15 h 60 (16.0)
16–30 h 9 (2.4)
31–45 h 0 (0.0)
46+ hours 0 (0.0)
Missing 98 (26.1)
Treatments typically provided in first osteopathic consultation, n (%) Articulation 255 (68.0)
Soft tissue therapy 234 (62.4)
Exercise 226 (60.3)
HVLA thrust 182 (48.5)
Muscle energy therapy 179 (47.7)
General osteopathic treatment 150 (40.0)
Functional technique 128 (34.1)
Myofascial release 122 (32.5)
Relaxation advice 112 (29.9)
Cranial technique 108 (28.8)
Ice/cold treatment 83 (22.1)
Strain-counterstrain 65 (17.3)
Acupuncture/acupressure 62 (16.5)
Other 49 (13.1)
Visceral therapy 43 (11.5)
Electrotherapy 24 (6.4)
Orthotics 15 (4.0)
Steroid injection 1 (0.3)
Clinical setting in which osteopathy is predominantly practiced, n (%) With a group of CAM providers 113 (30.1)
Solo practice 95 (25.3)
With CAM & conventional providers 31 (8.3)
With a group of conventional providers 24 (6.4)
Within an educational institution 5 (1.3)
Within a clinical institution 3 (0.8)
Missing 104 (27.7)
Geographical location, n (%) London 75 (20.0)
Southeast UK 69 (18.4)
Southwest UK 45 (12.0)
Midlands (UK) 20 (5.3)
Scotland 16 (4.3)
East Anglia 15 (4.0)
Northeast UK 14 (3.7)
Northwest UK 7 (1.9)
Wales 4 (1.1)
Other 4 (1.1)
Northern Ireland 2 (0.5)
Missing 104 (27.5)
Osteopathy professional association membership, n (%) Institute of Osteopathy 200 (53.3)
Not a member of an osteopathy association 45 (12.0)
Sutherland Cranial College of Osteopathy 39 (10.4)
Other 26 (6.9)
Sutherland Society 23 (6.1)
Foundation for Paediatric Osteopathy 18 (4.8)
Molinari Institute of Health 8 (2.1)
Rollin E Becker Institute 8 (2.1)
Institute of Classical Osteopathy 7 (1.9)
Geographical region, n (%) Outer city suburbs 94 (25.1)
Rural/remote region 70 (18.7)
City (Central business district) 59 (15.7)
Inner city suburbs 46 (12.3)
Missing 106 (28.3)
  1. CAM Complementary and alternative medicine, HVLA high-velocity low amplitude, IQR Interquartile range