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Table 3 Classification of lower limb coronal alignment into five types based on mLDFA and mMPTA

From: Mismatch between femur and tibia coronal alignment in the knee joint: classification of five lower limb types according to femoral and tibial mechanical alignment

Group Knee types #
Neutral Varus Valgus  
Variable Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Type 5 P
Neutral Oblique joint line Varus of the tibia Varus of both the tibia and femur Valgus of the femur
Number (N(total%)) 79(36.9) 52(24.2) 43(20.0) 21(9.8) 19(8.9)  
Sex 0.155
 Female (N(type%)) 42(53.1) 27(51.9) 15(34.9) 7(33.3) 11(61.1)  
Age (Y) 38.2 ± 17.0 37.0 ± 18.0 47.0 ± 19.7 50.6 ± 18.9b 43.0 ± 18.2 0.005
Age group 0.001
 20–50 year 56 36 17 7 11  
 51–70 year 23 16 26 14 8  
HKAA(°)* 0.6 ± 1.6 −0.4 ± 1.4 4.2 ± 1.1ab 5.6 ± 2.3abc −4.2 ± 0.9abcd < 0.001
mLDFA(°)* 88.0 ± 1.3 85.0 ± 1.4a 88.0 ± 1.4b 91.4 ± 1.4abc 84.6 ± 1.6acd < 0.001
mMPTA(°)* 87.0 ± 1.5 85.1 ± 1.2a 83.5 ± 1.6ab 85.2 ± 2.0ac 88.8 ± 2.0abcd < 0.001
AA-MA(°)* 4.4 ± 1.1 4.2 ± 1.2 5.4 ± 1.6ab 6.0 ± 2.1ab 4.0 ± 1.7cd < 0.001
KAA(°)* − 4.2 ± 1.5 −5.2 ± 1.5a − 2.2 ± 1.7ab −1.8 ± 1.7ab −7.8 ± 2.4abcd < 0.001
TJLA(°) * 0.0 ± 1.6 2.7 ± 2.4a 0.9 ± 2.1ab −0.9 ± 2.2bc 2.0 ± 3.3ad < 0.001
JLCA(°) * −0.4 ± 0.7 −0.2 ± 0.7 − 0.2 ± 1.1 −0.2 ± 1.2 − 0.5 ± 0.5 0.510
  1. *HKAA hip–knee–ankle angle, mLDFA mechanical lateral distal femoral angle, mMPTA mechanical medial proximal tibial angle, AA-MA angle between femoral anatomical axis and mechanical axis, KAA knee alignment angle, TJLA tibial joint line angle, JLCA joint line convergence angle
  2. # Type 1: valgus of the distal femur and varus of the proximal tibia within 3°; type 2: valgus of the distal femur and varus of the proximal tibia above 3° (neutral with knee joint line obliquity); type 3: genu varus with varus of the tibia; type 4: genu varus with both varus of the tibia and femur; type 5: genu valgus
  3. aP < 0.05 vs. type 1;bP < 0.05 vs. type 2;cP < 0.05 vs. type 3;dP < 0.05 vs. type 4
  4. denotes one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for continuous variables with Bonferroni post-hoc test or chi-square test for categorical variables