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Table 5 Key activities for supporting self-efficacy according to social cognitive theory [52]

From: GLA:D® Back group-based patient education integrated with exercises to support self-management of back pain - development, theories and scientific evidence -

Determinants of self-efficacy Presence in GLA:D Back Activity in GLA:D
Performance accomplishments Positive experiences with movement Focus point of exercise delivery
Vicarious experience Observing and interacting with fellow patients Group-based intervention
Social persuasion Verbal encouragement during exercises Motivating patients to explore movement rather than correcting performance
Physiological feedback Providing non-threatening explanations for pain provocation during movement Integrating education on pain mechanisms with exercise supervision (Additional file 1)