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Table 1 Between-group comparisons for demographic and kinematic data

From: Subgroups of lumbo-pelvic flexion kinematics are present in people with and without persistent low back pain

Demographics Details NoLBP (n = 124) LBP (n = 140) p-value
Age (years)   34.4 ± 13.5a 41.4 ± 12.6 p = .0001b
BMI   23.6 ± 3.5 25.6 ± 4.9 p = .0001b
Sex - % female   59% 57% p = .8250
Pain intensity (0–10)    5.3 ± 1.5 not applicable
Activity limitation (0–100)    39 ± 21 not applicable
Kinematic parameters   No LBP (n = 124) LBP (n = 140) p-value
Flexion: Peak trunk flexion Trunk flexion angular inclination (T12) 111o ± 16o 93o ± 16o p < .0000b
Flexion: Peak lumbar flexion Lumbar ROM 52o ± 11o 46o ± 12o p < .0000b
Flexion: Peak pelvic flexion Pelvic flexion angular inclination (S2) 59o ± 15o 48o ± 15o p < .0000b
Flexion: Lumbo-pelvic co-ordination Mean Lumbar % contribution 48 ± 11% 49 ± 11% p = .217
Flexion: Flexion Relaxation Response A ratio formed by units of surface EMG activity 0.012 ± 0.32 0.25 ± 0.32 p < .0000b
Sitting: Mean pelvic tilt range Range from full anterior tilt to full posterior tilt 29o ± 13o 29o ± 13o p = .883
Sitting: Mean pelvic tilt ratio A ratio of pelvic tilt range/range of trunk ROM change 2.1 ± 1.3 2.4 ± 1.4 p = .064
Sitting: Mean relative sitting position Max slump sit = 100%, maximum upright sit = 0% 48 ± 35% 50 ± 35% p = .619
   No LBP (n = 100) LBP (n = 105)  
Flexion: Delay at 0o Mean delay (negative numbers indicate pelvic delay) −0.21 ± 0.46 s −0.36 ± 0.46 s p = .023b
Flexion: Delay at 20o Mean delay (negative numbers indicate pelvic delay) −0.30 ± 0.88 s −0.51 ± 0.90s p = .105
Flexion: Mean movement duration Time from start of flexion to full flexion 2.28 ± 0.94 s 3.18 ± 0.94 s p < .0000b
  1. aAll data represented as mean and standard deviation bsignificant p values italicised