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Table 3 Type of wave characteristics, source of stimulation energy, and application parameters

From: Efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for knee tendinopathies and other soft tissue disorders: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Study author (year) [reference] Energy generator Source of energy Device Manufacturer Shock wave treatment protocol
Application parameters (per session) Total treatment sessions Interval between sessions Treatment duration (week)
Rate (Hz) EFD (mJ/mm2) No. of impulses TEDa (mJ/mm2) Local anesthesia
Chen (2014) [51] Focused Piezoelectric Piezowave Wolf, Germany 1–8 0.03–0.40 2000 60–800 Not used 6 1 week 6
Geng (2017) [90] Radial Pneumatic LGT2500 Longest, China NR 0.28 2000 560 Not used 4 1 week 4
Guan (2015) [80] Radial Pneumatic DolorClast EMS, Switzerland 5–7 0.05–0.075 2000–3000 100–225 Not used 3–5 1 week 3–5
Huang (2017) [88] Radial Pneumatic NR Xiangyu, China 12 0.18–0.31 2000 360–620 NR 5 1 week 5
Jiang (2016) [81] Radial NR NR NR 2–4 0.10–0.18 2500 100–625 Not used 6 2 days 2
Khosrawi (2017) [48] Focused NR NR NR 4 0.15 1500 225 Not used 3 1 week 3
Liu (2016) [82] Radial Pneumatic DolorClast EMS, Switzerland 10 0.21 2000 420 Not used 4 1 week 4
Taunton (2003) [83] Focused Electromagnetic Sonocur Siemens, USA NR 0.17 2000 340 Not used 3–5 1 week 3–5
Thijs (2017) [84] Focused Piezoelectric PiezoClast EMS, Switzerland 1–2 0.20 1000 200 Not used 3 1 week 3
Vetrano (2013) [85] Focused Electromagnetic Modulith SLK Storz, Switzerland NR 0.17–0.25 2400 408–600 Not used 3 2–3 days 2
Wang (2014) [86] Focused Electrohydraulic OssaTron HMT, Switzerland NR 0.298 1500 447 Used 1   1
Weckström (2016) [52] Radial Pneumatic Masterpuls MP 100 Storz, Switzerland 15 0.10–0.40 4600 460–1840 Not used 3 1 week 3
Wu (2009) [91] Radial Pneumatic ESWO-AJ EMS, Switzerland 1–15 0.10–0.12 2000 200–240 Not used 36 2 days 12
Wu (2016) [89] Radial Pneumatic MP50 Storz, Switzerland 5–11 0.15–0.32 2000 300–640 Not used 4 5 days 3
Yang (2007) [16] Focused Electrohydraulic HK.ESWO-AJ II Wikkon, China 1 0.06–0.11 1000–2000 60–220 Not used 6 4 days 3–4
Zhang (2016) [92] Radial Pneumatic MP100 Storz, Switzerland 10–15 0.08–0.15 2000–3000 300–640 Not used 18 2 days 6
Zhang (2017) [17] Radial Pneumatic HK.ESWO-AJ II Wikkon, China 8 0.11 1800–2000 60–220 Not used 8 3 days 4
Zhou (2015) [53] Radial Pneumatic DolorClast EMS, Switzerland 8–10 0.10–0.18 2000 200–360 Not used 5 4 days 3
Zwerver (2011) [87] Focused Piezoelectric Piezowave Wolf, Germany 4 0.10–0.58 2000 200–1160 Not used 3 1 week 3
  1. aTED = EFD × number of shock wave impulses
  2. EMS Electro Medical Systems, HMT High Medical Technology, DMT Dornier MedTech, EFD energy flux density, TED total energy dose (intensity × number of shock wave impulses), NR not reported