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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample at study onset (n = 145)

From: Emotional distress was associated with persistent shoulder pain after physiotherapy: a prospective cohort study

Variables Frequency (%) Mean (SD)
Age   44.0 (15.4)
Sex, female (missing: 2) 104 (71.7)  
BMI (missing: 25)   24.7 (3.7)
Education
  ≤ 13 years 45 (31.0)  
 College /university 98 (67.6)  
 (Missing: 2)   
Work status
 Working or being in education 119 (82.1)  
 Not working 26 (17.9)  
Relationship status
 In a relationship 75 (51.7)  
 Not in a relationship 68 (46.9)  
 (Missing: 2)   
Smoking (missing: 2) 12 (8.3)  
Emotional distress (HSCL-25)a (1–4)   1.6 (0.5)
Pain intensity (NPRS)b (0–10) (Missing: 18)   4.9 (2.3)
Disability (PSFS)c (0–10)   4.5 (2.0)
Duration of pain
 0–3 months 28 (19.3)  
 4–12 months 39 (26.9)  
  > 12 months 78 (53.8)  
Use of pain relieving drugs
 Every week or more 31 (21.4)  
 Less than every week 113 (77.9)  
 (Missing: 1)   
Concomitant neck pain 60 (41.4)  
Number of pain sites
  > 2 sites of pain 24 (16.6)  
  ≤ 2 sites of pain 121 (83.4)  
  1. a HSCL-25 = Hopkins Symptom Checklist – 25, the average of 25 questions rated between 1: not at all, 4: very much
  2. b NPRS = Numeric Pain Rating Scale, 0: no pain, 10: worst imagined pain
  3. c PSFS = Patient Specific Functional Scale, the average of up to three activities rated between 0: impossible to perform the activity, 10: no difficulty, or at the same level as before the pain occurred