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Table 1 Participant characteristics at baseline

From: The course of complaints of arm, neck and/or shoulder: a cohort study in a university population participating in work or study

  Total population
(n = 239)
Subgroup
Baseline duration < 3 mo
(n = 133)a
Subgroup
Baseline duration ≥3 mo
(n = 101)a
p-value
Variables Number of participants (%)b %b %b  
Participant characteristics
 Gender (female), n (%) 177 (74) 79.7 68.3 0.047
 Age(years),mean (sd) 35.5 (13.3) 30.9 (12.17) 44.1 (11.2) < 0.001
 Body mass index (kg/m2), mean (sd) 23.9 (3.37) 23.4 (3.27) 24.5 (3.37) 0.026
 Paid work, n (%) 149 (62) 39.8 91.1 < 0.001
 Student status, n (%) 89 (38) 60.2 8.9  
 Scientific staff, n (%) 60 (42.3) 49.1 38.2 0.205
 Support staff, n (%) 82 (57.7) 50.9 61.9  
 Marital status     < 0.001
  Unmarried/ living alone, n (%) 68 (28) 49.5 19.7  
  Married/ living together, n (%) 110 (46) 47.7 72.4  
  Widow/ divorced, n (%) 9 (4) 2.8 7.9  
  Unknown, n (%) 52 (22)    
 Children in the household     0.312
  No, n (%) 163 (68) 89.7 82.9  
  Yes, one or more, n (%) 24 (10) 10.3 17.1  
  Unknown, n (%) 52 (22)    
Health behaviour
 Currently smoking     0.063
  No, I have never smoked, n (%) 119 (50) 72.0 53.9  
  No, but I used to smoke now and then n (%), 22 (9.2) 11.2 13.2  
  No, but I used to smoke every day, n (%) 24 (10) 10.3 17.1  
  Yes, I smoke now and then, n (%) 3 (1) 1.9 1.3  
  Yes, I smoke every day, n (%) 16 (7) 4.7 14.5  
  Unknown, n (%) 55 (23)  
 Alcohol consumption     0.134
  No, never or seldom, n (%) 50 (21) 27.1 27.6  
  Yes, now and then (< 3 drinks/week), n (%) 89 (37) 53.3 40.8  
  Yes, >  3 drinks/ week, n (%) 45 (19) 19.6 31.6  
  Unknown, n (%) 55 (23)  
Complaint characteristics
 Duration of current episode  
   <  1 month, n (%) 112 (46.9)    
  1–3 months, n (%) 21 (8.8)    
  3–6 months, n (%) 19 (7.9)    
   > 6 months n (%) 82 (34.3)    
  Unknown 5    
 History of CANS     < 0.001
  No, n (%) 22 (9.2) 19.4 9.3  
  Yes, one time before, n (%) 17 (7.1) 20.9 3.1  
  Yes, more times before, n (%) 125 (52.3) 59.7 87.6  
 Discomfort of complaints     < 0.001
  No discomfort, n (%) 1 (0.4) 1.4 0.0  
  Regularly, n (%) 120 (50.2) 86.8 61.6  
  Almost continuously, n (%) 46 (19.2) 11.8 38.4  
Baseline scores of outcome measures
 Complaints intensity in previous week (VAS) [0–10] mean (sd) 4.05 (2.28) 3.7 4.5 0.019
  median [range] 4 [0–8]    
 Disability (DASH) [0–100] mean (sd) 15.05 (12.5) 11.7 (10.5) 19.5 (13.8) < 0.001
  median [range] 13.36 [0.00–58.62]    
 Impact on participation and autonomy (IPA),
  Autonomy indoors [0–4], mean (sd) 0.18 (0.33) 0.15 (0.30) 0.23 (0.37) 0.085
  Family role [0–4] mean (sd), 0.51 (0.59) 0.38 (0.46) 0.66 (0.65) 0.001
  Autonomy outdoors [0–4], mean (sd) 0.58 (0.62) 0.47 (0.53) 0.69 (0.69) 0.019
  Social life and relationships [0–4], mean (sd) 0.45 (0.48) 0.41 (0.45) 0.50 (0.52) 0.214
  Work and education [0–4], mean (sd) 0.86 (0.71) 0.71 (0.69) 1.03 (0.68) 0.005
Physical activity in leisure time
 Sports participation (yes),n (%) 117 (49) 48.9 42.0 0.297
 NNGB (yes), n (%) 239 (100) 64.7 63.0 0.794
 VDU use > 2 h/day (yes), n (%) 73 (31.5) 42.9 16.2 < 0.001
 Heavy physical load (0–8), mean (sd) 3.05 (1.6) 2.47 (1.3) 2.92 (1.6) 0.217
 Static physical load (0–2), mean (sd) 1.41 (0.6) 1.31 (0.5) 1.50 (0.6) 0.463
Psychosocial characteristics
 Social support, (SOS) [1–5], mean (sd) 4.69 (0.5) 4.20 (0.6) 3.81 (0.59) < 0.001
 Catastrophizing, (PCS) [0–52], mean (sd) 9.81 (8.4) 9.07 (8.4) 10.61 (8.4) 0.229
 Fear avoidance, (FABQ)
  Physical Activity subscale [0–24], mean (sd) 8.81 (5.5) 7.86 (5.4) 9.99 (5.5) 0.011
  Work subscale [0–42], mean (sd) 15.43 (7.9) 14.64 (6.8) 15.89 (8.7) 0.428
Work variables for working population (n = 149)
 Full-time work, n (%) 111 (74.5) 66.0 72.5 0.412
 Working less than 3 y in current job, n (%) 41 (27.5) 43.4 24.2 0.016
 Work-related complaints (yes), n (%) 127 (85.2) 88.3 87.4 0.859
 Sickness absence related to CANS     0.185
  No, n (%) 135 (93.1) 98.1 90.2  
  Yes, <  1 mo, n (%) 8 (5.5) 1.9 7.6  
  Yes, ≥ 1 mo, n (%) 2 (1.4) 0 2.2  
 Physical workload, (short version PWQ)
  Heavy physical load [7–14], mean (sd) 7.20 (0.7) 7.13 (0.4) 7.26 (0.84) 0.346
  Static repetitive load [8–16], mean (sd) 13.65 (2.1) 13.72 (2.4) 13.68 (1.8) 0.929
 Psychosocial factors for working population, (JCQ)
  Psychological job demands [5–20], mean (sd) 11.3 (3.0) 11.7 (3.1) 11.0 (2.9) 0.231
  Decision authority ([3–12]), mean (sd) 9.5 (1.8) 9.3 (1.6) 9.3 (1.8) 0.246
  Skill discretion [6–24], mean (sd) 18.9 (3.0) 18.9 (3.1) 18.9 (2.9) 0.996
  Co-worker support [4–16], mean (sd) 11.5 (3.3) 11.9 (3.6) 11.2 (3.1) 0.268
  Supervisor support [4–16], mean (sd) 13.2 (2.1) 13.6 (2.2) 13.0 (2.09) 0.176
  1. [..] score range, sd standard deviation, mo months, NNGB Nederlandse Norm Gezond Bewegen (Dutch Norm for Healthy Physical Activity), VDU Visual Display Unit, NRS Numeric Rating Scale, DASH Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire, IPA Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire, SOS Social Support Questionnaire, PCS Pain Catastrophizing Scale, FABQ Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, JCQ Job Content Questionnaire
  2. aTotal of groups ‘duration < 3 mo’ and ‘duration ≥ 3 mo’ does not equal total population, due to missing values
  3. bmeans and standard deviations (sd) are presented for continuous scales