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Table 2 Associations between osteoporosis and comorbidities with adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (GEDA 2012)

From: Prevalence and comorbidity of osteoporosis– a cross-sectional analysis on 10,660 adults aged 50 years and older in Germany

Comorbidity Study population n (%a) (N = 10,660) Osteoporosis population n (%a) (N = 911) ORb (95% CI)
Arthrosis 3541 (34.5) 573 (63.2) 3.3 (2.6-4.1)***
Hypertension 4602 (44.2) 464 (51.3) 1.2 (1.0-1.5)
Chronic low back pain 2656 (26.8) 442 (49.6) 2.8 (2.3-3.5)***
Hypercholesterolemia 3092 (30.1) 334 (38.6) 1.5 (1.2-1.8)**
Coronary heart disease 1278 (13.7) 175 (21.0) 1.5 (1.1-2.0)**
Arthritis 799 (8.3) 171 (20.6) 3.0 (2.2-4.2)***
Any type of cancer 1334 (12.2) 154 (16.0) 1.2 (0.9-1.6)
Depression 911 (8.8) 128 (15.3) 2.3 (1.7-3.1)***
Chronic heart failure 600 (6.1) 110 (14.0) 2.3 (1.6-3.1)***
Diabetes mellitus 1418 (13.7) 122 (13.8) 0.9 (0.7-1.2)
Bronchial asthma 695 (7.1) 106 (12.2) 1.6 (1.2-2.2)**
Chronic bronchitis 701 (7.2) 119 (11.9) 1.6 (1.2-2.2)**
Stroke 437 (4.6) 67 (9.1) 1.8 (1.1-2.8)*
Myocardial infarction 596 (6.2) 59 (7.3) 1.0 (0.7-1.5)
Chronic liver disease 232 (2.1) 36 (3.8) 1.8 (1.0-3.2)*
  1. aWeighted results to represent the adult population in Germany
  2. bOdds ratio estimated from logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, education, BMI, smoking status and alcohol consumption, *** p < 0.001 ** p < 0.01 * p < 0.05. A separate regression model was fitted for each comorbidity